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  • 1   2017-03-13 《粮食和农业的未来:趋势与挑战》报告 (编译服务:农业土壤)     
    摘要:

    粮农组织2月22日发布《粮食和农业的未来:趋势与挑战》研究报告。报告指出,自20世纪90年代以来,全球玉米、稻米和小麦产量的平均增长率总体上仅略高于1%。扩大粮食生产和经济增长往往付出了破坏自然环境的沉重代价。曾经覆盖地球的森林近一半已不复存在。地下水源正在迅速枯竭。生物多样性也已经被严重侵蚀。高投入、资源密集型耕作系统造成了大面积毁林、缺水、土壤流失和温室气体大量排放,不能提供可持续的粮食和农业生产。同时,随着全球饮食结构的变化,更多的人将减少食用谷物,增加肉类、水果、蔬菜和加工食品的消费,而结果将是进一步加剧上述压力。

    报告确定了世界粮食系统的15个趋势和10项挑战

    15 trends

    * A rapidly increasing world population marked by growth "hot spots," urbanization, and aging

    * Diverse trends in economic growth, family incomes, agricultural investment, and economic inequality.

    * Greatly increased competition for natural resources

    * Climate change

    * Plateauing agricultural productivity

    * Transboundary diseases

    * Increased conflicts, crises and natural disasters

    * Persistent poverty, inequality and food insecurity

    * Dietary transitions affecting nutrition and health

    * Structural changes in economic systems and employment implications

    * Increased migration

    * Changing food systems and resulting impacts on farmers livelihoods

    * Persisting food losses and waste

    * New international governance mechanisms for responding to food and nutrition security issues

    * Changes in international financing for development.

    10 challenges

    * Sustainably improving agricultural productivity to meet increasing demand

    * Ensuring a sustainable natural resource base

    * Addressing climate change and intensification of natural hazards

    * Eradicating extreme poverty and reducing inequality

    * Ending hunger and all forms of malnutrition

    * Making food systems more efficient, inclusive and resilient

    * Improving income earning opportunities in rural areas and addressing the root causes of migration

    * Building resilience to protracted crises, disasters and conflicts

    * Preventing transboundary and emerging agriculture and food system threats

    * Addressing the need for coherent and effective national and international governance

    来源机构: FAO | 点击量:95
  • 摘要:

    2017-01-17,国土资源部发布了《2015年全国耕地质量等别更新评价主要数据成果的公告》(2017年第3号)。

    公告的主要数据显示,全国耕地评定为15个等别,1等耕地质量最好,15等最差,全国耕地质量平均等别为9.96等,优等地、高等地、中等地、低等地面积占全国耕地评定总面积的比例分别为2.94%、26.53%、52.84%、17.69%;2014年度内新增耕地平均质量等别为9.88等,减少耕地平均质量等别为8.60等,质量建设项目实施后耕地平均质量等别为8.49等。与2014年发布成果相比,我国耕地质量水平总体稳定,即通过土地整治、高标准农田建设等耕地质量建设工程,弥补了耕地占补过程中的耕地质量损失,保障了全国耕地质量水平的总体稳定。

    来源机构: 国土资源部 | 点击量:108
  • 摘要:

    首届农业资源与环境论坛

    农业水肥资源高效利用及面源污染控制专题研讨会-《作物多样性种植高效利用氮磷养分的研究进展与展望》

    报告人:李隆 中国农业大学教授,在间套作种间相互作用提高生产力,根系相互作用、氮和磷资源高效利用方面进行过深入研究。相关研究成果获得5项省部级奖励。在国内外学术刊物发表论文100多篇。其中在PNAS,New Phytologist, Annals of Botany, Oecologia, Plant and Soil,Field Crops Research等国际学术刊物发表50多篇,被国际SCI刊物他引1200多次。近五年主持完成国家重大基础研究(973)项目课题“作物多样性影响土壤地力的根际生态过程(2011-2015)”,正在主持国家基金重点项目“物种多样性维持农田生态系统生产力长期稳定的地下部生态机制(2015-2019)”和国家重点研发计划项目课题“作物间套作资源协调过程与作物生理生态响应机制”(2016-2020)”。

    来源机构: 农业环境科学 | 点击量:25
  • 4   2016-12-07 2018年世界肥料趋势与展望 (编译服务:农业土壤)     
    摘要:

    The world economy has broadly strengthened over the past three years and is expected to continue this strengthening during 2014-2015. The world cereal production in 2014 is estimated to reach 2 498 000 000 tonnes, or 2.2 percent below that of the record production in 2013. World demand for total fertilizer nutrients is estimated to grow at 1.8 percent per annum from 2014 to 2018. The demand for nitrogen, phosphate, and potash is forecast to grow annually by 1.4, 2.2, and 2.6 percent, respectively, during the period. The global potential nitrogen balance (i.e. the difference between N potentially available for fertilizers and N fertilizer demand) as a percentage of N fertilizer demand is expected to steadily rise and reach 9.5 percent in 2018, that of phosphorous from 6.4 percent of total demand to 8.5 percent and that of potassium from 25 percent of total demand to 33 percent.

    来源机构: FAO | 点击量:977
  • 摘要:

    在FAO举办的粮农组织农业委员会(农委)第二十五届会议上,FAO发布《《可持续土壤管理自愿准则》草案与“全球土壤伙伴关系”全体会议的报告。报告全文可分别在http://www.fao.org/3/a-az541e.pdfhttp://www.fao.org/3/a-bl812e.pdf查阅。可以强调的是,全球土壤伙伴关系的若干主要活动已由其主要技术咨询机构即政府间土壤技术小组自行或主持开展。本文件概述了全球土壤伙伴关系在过去两年取得的各项成就,包括全球土壤伙伴关系第三届和第四届全体会议的报告以及在防治土壤退化和推广可持续土壤管理方面取得的进展。

    来源机构: FAO | 点击量:667
  • 6   2016-06-07 2019世界肥料趋势展望报告 (编译服务:农业土壤)     
    摘要:

    The World fertilizer trends and outlook to 2019 is the latest in a series of annual reports that result from meetings of FAO Plant Production and Protection (AGP) and Statistics (ESS) Divisions, and the Fertilizer Organization Working Group, in which nitrogen, phosphate and potassium fertilizer medium-term supply and demand is estimated and projected for the following four years. The report is intended for use by a range of stakeholders in the public, private and educational sectors and civil society to use as a source of information and guide to fertilizer use and trends at global, regional and country levels, and to assist in planning and management of fertilizer resources.

    来源机构: FAO | 点击量:31
  • 7   2016-05-27 全球土壤生物多样性地图集 (编译服务:农业土壤)     
    摘要:

    New atlas illustrates global soil biodiversity and threats to soil organisms

    The JRC publishes the first-ever Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas that maps the soil biodiversity of the entire planet. This unique Atlas pays tribute to soil – the silent engine that keeps the planet alive – by providing a detailed analysis of soil organisms and the threats to soil biodiversity at global scale. The Atlas will be launched by the JRC at the 2nd UN Environment Assembly (UNEA) in Nairobi on 25 May.

    Global Soil Biodiversity Atlas

    The Atlas describes soil as habitat for the diversity of organisms that live under our feet. At the same time, it draws attention to the threats to soil biodiversity, such as invasive species, pollution, intensive land use practices or climate change. The Atlas provides current solutions for a sustainable management of soils.

    It was coordinated by the JRC and the Global Soil Biodiversity Initiative (www.globalsoilbiodiversity.org) with more than 70 contributing organisations and several hundred individual contributions. It illustrates the diversity of soil organisms, explains their geographical and temporal distribution, the ecosystem functions and services provided by soil biota. Most importantly, it draws attention to the myriad of threats to soil biodiversity. These include inappropriate land management practices (e.g. deforestation, land take for infrastructure development), agricultural systems, over-grazing, forest fires and poor water management (both irrigation and drainage). Other practices such as land conversion from grassland or forest to cropped land result in rapid loss of soil carbon, which indirectly enhances global warming.

    The Atlas shows that mismanaging soils could exacerbate the effects of climate change, jeopardise agricultural production, compromise the quality of ground water and worsen pollution. It also proposes solutions to safeguard soil biodiversity through the development of policies that directly or indirectly target soil health, leading to a more sustainable use.

    Partners

    In addition to the JRC, which led the European Commission’s contribution, the Editorial Board of the atlas comprised the University of Manchester, the Consultative Group for International Agricultural Research - World Agroforestry Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, University of Vigo, Institute of Research for the Development France, Wageningen University, Netherlands Institute of Ecology, London Natural History Museum, University of Colorado, University of Reading, Lund University, Harper Adams University, Northern Arizona University, University of Hohenheim, Yokohama National University, Pierre and Marie Curie University, French National Institute for Agricultural Research, University of Lavras, University of Göttingen, University of Western Sydney, and Colorado State University.

    Soil: a fundamental element for food and life

    Global food security is dependent on life found beneath our feet 98% of all global daily calories derive from actions from the soil biodiversity. Crop yield and conditions for animal husbandry are dependent on soil fertility, which in turn, is conditioned by the interactions of soil-dwelling communities.

    Soils provide a rich habitat, which may contain more than 10 000 species per square metre. A single gram of soil may contain millions of individual cells and thousands of species of bacteria. Soil organisms also maintain critical processes, such as carbon storage, nutrient cycling and plant species diversity and play a key role in maintaining soil fertility.

    Existing policies related to soil biodiversity

    The European Commission’s Soil Thematic Strategy sets out common principles for protecting soils across the EU. Globally, recent developments such as the UN climate summit in Paris, the Sustainable Development Goals and the Global Soil Partnership have highlighted an increasing realisation of the importance of soils and the life within them. Presently, no country has legislation that specifically protects soil biodiversity.

    How to obtain the atlas

    Digital version of the atlas is available for free download via the JRC, the GSBI and EU Bookshop. Printed copies can be purchased from the EU Bookshop.

    来源机构: European Commission | 点击量:67
  • 8   2016-05-24 农田有机复合污染的控制与修复技术 (编译服务:农业土壤)     
    摘要:

    摘要:通过深入研究降解菌株的生物学特性、代谢规律和代谢过程,克隆了降解除草剂乳氟禾草灵的关键酯酶基因2个,分别命名为lacH和lacE。构建了高效磺酰脲类除草剂的无抗性标记基因工程菌KT-puts1/KT-puts2。利用分子改造技术进一步提高有机磷工程菌的降解效率及温度,pH稳定性;研究不同靶标污染物降解菌之间的相互适应特性,初步构建了高效微生物复合降解菌系2个,微生物-植物协同降解组合体系2个;开展了持久性污染物植物修复品种的筛选研究;研究了降解菌的硅化固定化技术,同时加强了降解菌群的动态变化研究。

    作者:李新宇 何健 郭楚玲 张晓霞 李玉灵

    作者单位:中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所,南京农业大学,华南理工大学,中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所,河北农业大学

    报告类型:进展报告

    公开范围:公开

    全文页数:39

    项目/课题名称:农田有机复合污染的控制与修复技术

    计划名称:国家高技术研究发展计划

    编制时间:2013年11月15日

    立项批准年:2012

    来源机构: 万方 | 点击量:37