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  • 摘要:

    本报告汇编并总结了美国疾病预防控制中心免疫接种实践咨询委员会(ACIP)关于预防和控制美国破伤风,白喉和百日咳的所有建议。作为以前发布的建议的综合摘要,本报告不包含任何新建议,并不取代所有以前发布的报告和政策说明;它旨在供临床医生和公共卫生提供者用作资源。 ACIP建议对破伤风,白喉和百日咳进行常规疫苗接种。建议婴幼儿接受5剂白喉和破伤风类毒素和无细胞百日咳(DTaP)疫苗系列,其中一种是青春期加强剂量的破伤风类毒素,白喉类毒素减少和无细胞百日咳(Tdap)疫苗。从未接受过Tdap的成年人也被推荐接受加强剂量的Tdap。建议女性在每次怀孕期间接受一剂Tdap,这应该在怀孕27至36周之间进行,无论之前是否接受过Tdap。收到Tdap后,建议青少年和成人每10年接种一次加强破伤风和白喉类毒素(Td)疫苗,以确保持续防止破伤风和白喉。

    来源机构: 美国疾病预防控制中心(CDC) | 点击量:10695
  • 摘要:

    美国食品和药物管理局(FDA)7月6日宣布,它已经修订了针对寨卡病毒捐献血液和血液制品的测试指南,允许使用FDA许可的测试对该捐赠进行汇总测试。

    修订后的指南取代了2016年8月的指南,该指南建议对在美国及其领土上捐赠的各个血液单位进行核酸检测。该更新表示,汇总的测试方法将有助于降低寨卡病毒传播的风险,除非在特定地理位置增加当地蚊媒病毒的风险,这将触发该地区个人捐赠测试的回归。作为另一种选择,FDA表示血液机构可以使用经批准的病原体减少装置用于血浆和某些血小板产品。

    该公告是在FDA的血液制品咨询委员会于2017年12月提出的建议之后发布的,该委员会审议了科学证据,并与其他公共卫生机构进行了磋商。

    美国食品和药物管理局生物制品评估和研究中心主任,医学博士,医学博士Peter Marks表示,鉴于寨卡病例减少,该机构正在逐步测试个人捐赠。 “这通常更具成本效益,减少了血液设施的负担。但是,FDA将继续密切监测情况,并酌情重新考虑维持血液供应安全所需的措施。”

    5月,在美国研究寨卡捐献血液筛查的研究人员发现,这个过程出乎意料地花费了很多,而且很少发现。根据该研究,增强的测试成本为4200万美元,并且发现了9个正面捐赠。

    然而,研究人员表示,退出当前的测试建议是一项复杂的决定,因为科学家们仍在整理寨卡相关的血液供应问题和输血相关感染的风险。

    同样在5月,FDA批准了罗氏分子诊断公司(Roche Molecular Diagnostics)进行的cobas测试的另一项索赔,允许该测试用于筛选针对寨卡病毒的汇集血液和血浆捐赠。

    来源机构: 传染性疾病研究和决策中心(CIDRAP) | 点击量:674
  • 摘要:

    国家卫生健康委员会研究制定了《手足口病诊疗指南(2018年版)》(可从国家卫生健康委员会官网下载)

    来源机构: 国家卫生健康委员会 | 点击量:1091
  • 4   2018-05-22 世界疟疾报告2017 (编译服务:新发突发疾病防治)     
    摘要:

    世界疟疾报告每年出版一次,全面介绍全球和区域疟疾数据和趋势。 最新报告于2017年11月29日发布,追踪疟疾计划和研究的投资以及所有干预领域的进展:预防,诊断,治疗和监测。 它还包括消除疟疾的专门章节和防治疟疾的主要威胁。该报告基于从国家疟疾控制规划和其他流行国家伙伴收到的信息; 大部分数据来自2016年。

    来源机构: 世界卫生组织(WHO) | 点击量:1203
  • 5   2017-11-14 终结霍乱:至2030的全球路线图 (编译服务:新发突发疾病防治)     
    摘要:

    The Global Roadmap aims to align resources, share best practice and strengthen partnerships between affected countries, donors and international agencies. It underscores the need for a coordinated approach to cholera control with country-level planning for early detection and response to outbreaks. By implementing the Roadmap, up to 20 affected countries could eliminate cholera by 2030.

    来源机构: 世界卫生组织(WHO) | 点击量:2813
  • 摘要:

    This fifth update of the risk assessment on human infection with avian influenza A(H7N9) virus, summarises the epidemiological and virological information on the disease in China and Canada, and assesses the risk to public health in the EU/EEA and to EU/EEA citizens. - See more at: http://ecdc.europa.eu/en/publications/_layouts/forms/Publication_DispForm.aspx?List=4f55ad51-4aed-4d32-b960-af70113dbb90&ID=1634#sthash.aSz59UoP.dpuf

    来源机构: 欧洲疾病预防控制中心(ECDC) | 点击量:1470
  • 摘要:

    为指导疾病预防控制专业人员和预防接种人员合理使用EV71疫苗,做好受种儿童家长沟通与咨询,中国疾病预防控制中心制定了《肠道病毒71型灭活疫苗使用技术指南》。

    该指南主要包括EV71病原学、临床学、流行病学、EV71疫苗、EV71疫苗使用建议五个部分,对EV71感染的疾病、诊断与治疗、全球流行概况和我国人群的流行特征、疾病负担、EV71疫苗研发进展、接种对象、接种程序和禁忌、接种管理及注意事项等各方面进行了系统阐述,并对EV71疫苗与其他疫苗同时接种、不同企业疫苗的序贯接种、公众交流与信息传播等提出具体的建议和要求。

    来源机构: 中国疾病预防控制中心 | 点击量:215
  • 摘要:

    As of 29 February 2016, the spread of the Zika virus epidemic in the Americas and Caribbean is continuing. In the light of the current disease trend and the association with severe complications (such as adverse pregnancy outcomes or neurological complications), ECDC is proposing an algorithm for public health management of cases

    under investigation for Zika virus infection and an outline of the strategy for the laboratories performing Zika virus infection diagnostic tests.

    This document aims to present an algorithm for deciding whom to test and provide guidance on the laboratory tests for Zika virus infection diagnosis in order to support clinical diagnostic and case reporting through surveillance among EU Member States.

    The information is provisional and subject to revision when new information becomes available.

    来源机构: 欧洲疾病预防控制中心(ECDC) | 点击量:236
  • 摘要:

    US CDC developed the US Zika Pregnancy Registry to:

    ?

    Learn more about the effects of Zika virus infection (Zika) during pregnancy.

    ?

    Learn more about the growth and development of babies whose mothers had Zika

    while pregnant.

    CDC will collect health information about Zika and pregnant women and babies across

    the United States for the registry. CDC, health departments, doctors and healthcare

    providers will use the information from this registry to help pregnant women, children,

    and families affected by Zika

    来源机构: | 点击量:263
  • 摘要:

    From week 40/2015, the start of weekly reporting on influenza activity in the WHO European Region, to week 13/2016, over 120 000 influenza detections across the Region have been reported. Influenza type A viruses are prevailing over type B but, unlike the situation in the 2014–15 season, A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses are prevailing over A(H3N2) and the proportion of B/Victoria-lineage detections has risen substantially, representing ~94% of those assigned to a lineage.

    To date, 24 EU/EEA countries have shared 472 influenza-positive specimens with the Francis Crick Institute, London, for detailed characterisation: one additional country and 48 specimens since the February 2016 report. Since the latter report, 67 viruses have been characterised antigenically and genetic analyses are ongoing.

    The 35 A(H1N1)pdm09 viruses characterised antigenically were similar to the vaccine virus A/California/7/2009. Worldwide, new genetic sub-clusters of viruses within the 6B clade have emerged, with two being designated as subclades: 6B.1 defined by HA1 amino acid substitutions S162N and I216T and 6B.2 defined by HA1 amino acid substitutions V152T and V173I. Of the 178 viruses characterised genetically for the 2015–16 season, 24 (13%) were clade 6B, 147 (83%) were subclade 6B.1 and seven (4%) were subclade 6B.2.

    The six A(H3N2) test viruses characterised by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay were poorly recognised by reference antiserum raised against egg-propagated A/Switzerland/9715293/2013, the vaccine virus recommended for use in the 2015–16 northern hemisphere influenza season, despite at least three of the test viruses falling in the same subclade (3C.3a) as the vaccine virus. The test viruses were recognised somewhat better by antisera raised against egg-propagated A/Hong Kong/4801/2014, the virus recommended for use in 2016 southern hemisphere and 2016–17 northern hemisphere influenza vaccines. Of 55 A(H3N2) viruses characterised genetically for the 2015–16 season: one (2%) was clade 3C.3, 32 (58%) were subclade 3C.2a and 22 (40%) were subclade 3C.3a.

    The 23 B/Victoria-lineage viruses were antigenically similar to tissue culture-propagated surrogates of B/Brisbane/60/2008. All 56 viruses characterised genetically for the 2015–16 season fell in genetic clade 1A as do recently collected viruses worldwide.

    Three B/Yamagata viruses have been characterised since the previous report; all reacted well with post-infection ferret antiserum raised against egg-propagated B/Phuket/3073/2013, the recommended vaccine virus for the northern hemisphere 2015–16 influenza season and for quadrivalent vaccines in the 2016 southern hemisphere and 2016–17 northern hemisphere seasons. All 10 viruses characterised genetically for the 2015–16 season fell in genetic clade 3.

    来源机构: | 点击量:230