人类遗传资源和特殊生物资源流失
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  • 摘要:

    生物安全法规、指南和信息资源大全

    来源机构: | 点击量:296
  • 摘要:

    This report examines the different channels through which trade openness (and reforms to achieve it)can affect a country’s food security. The overall conclusion is that trade openness has a positive netimpact on food security, although specific constituencies, including some poor households, could seetheir immediate food security threatened by the withdrawal of trade protection. The challenge forpolicymakers is to design flanking policies which enable countries to reap aggregate gains yet mitigatespecific losses. Those policies include social protection and the provision of risk management tools,

    allied with investments in productivity so that average incomes rise to the extent that any adverse shockto incomes is unlikely to jeopardise food security. Developing countries are increasingly able to deploysuch targeted instruments. Lessons are also being learned with respect to the political economy of tradereform, such that changes can be introduced in a way that minimises adjustment stresses and helps buildthe consensus needed to lock in the benefits of trade policy reform.

    来源机构: | 点击量:548
  • 摘要:

    Livestock diseases can severely harm animal and human health, and have adverse economic impactson producer incomes, markets, trade, and consumers. This paper develops a common framework toimprove information on public actions and policies to manage outbreaks of livestock diseases acrosscountries. The main aim is to facilitate the assessment of the effectiveness and efficiency of differentpolicy responses to disease outbreaks. A pilot database covering four livestock diseases (avianinfluenza, bovine spongiform encephalopathy, classical swine fever, and foot and mouth disease) innine countries (Canada, Denmark, France, Germany, Hungary, Japan, Mexico, the Netherlands, andthe United Kingdom) was constructed. It combines three layers of data: epidemiological factors;

    government control and compensation measures; and economic impacts of disease outbreaks. Policyresponses to outbreaks were reviewed based on the information generated from the data analysis.

    The results show that government expenditures to destroy pathogens via slaughter and

    compensation policy measures were very expensive, especially in the case of large or prolongedoutbreaks, and that measures compensating financial losses at the farm level generated the highestshare of government expenditures in the short run.

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  • 摘要:

    Public stockholding remains a major concern in multilateral negotiations on agricultural trade liberalisation.

    This paper focuses on identifying alternative policies to buffer stockholding. It first positions buffer stocks within the range of policies aimed at price stabilisation and food security, with a view to identifying alternatives to meet the same policy objectives. The paper then examines the most direct alternative to public food stocksfor price stabilisation, namely private stockholding. It explores experience with private stockholding to assessits effectiveness in achieving price stabilisation objectives and the necessary conditions for implementation. Asthe price stabilisation role of buffer stocks is also argued to be necessary for food security, the paper alsoexplores alternative approaches that governments may take to meeting this food security objective throughsocial safety nets. Some illustrative examples are explored to highlight key elements for successful

    implementation. The paper concludes with some observations regarding policy alternatives to buffer stocks.

    This paper was declassified at the May 2016 by the OECD Joint Working Party of Agriculture and Trade.

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