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编译服务: 化肥农药减施增效 编译者: 金慧敏 编译时间: 2017-3-13 点击量: 1545

粮农组织2月22日发布《粮食和农业的未来:趋势与挑战》研究报告。报告指出,自20世纪90年代以来,全球玉米、稻米和小麦产量的平均增长率总体上仅略高于1%。扩大粮食生产和经济增长往往付出了破坏自然环境的沉重代价。曾经覆盖地球的森林近一半已不复存在。地下水源正在迅速枯竭。生物多样性也已经被严重侵蚀。高投入、资源密集型耕作系统造成了大面积毁林、缺水、土壤流失和温室气体大量排放,不能提供可持续的粮食和农业生产。同时,随着全球饮食结构的变化,更多的人将减少食用谷物,增加肉类、水果、蔬菜和加工食品的消费,而结果将是进一步加剧上述压力。

报告确定了世界粮食系统的15个趋势和10项挑战

15 trends

* A rapidly increasing world population marked by growth "hot spots," urbanization, and aging

* Diverse trends in economic growth, family incomes, agricultural investment, and economic inequality.

* Greatly increased competition for natural resources

* Climate change

* Plateauing agricultural productivity

* Transboundary diseases

* Increased conflicts, crises and natural disasters

* Persistent poverty, inequality and food insecurity

* Dietary transitions affecting nutrition and health

* Structural changes in economic systems and employment implications

* Increased migration

* Changing food systems and resulting impacts on farmers livelihoods

* Persisting food losses and waste

* New international governance mechanisms for responding to food and nutrition security issues

* Changes in international financing for development.

10 challenges

* Sustainably improving agricultural productivity to meet increasing demand

* Ensuring a sustainable natural resource base

* Addressing climate change and intensification of natural hazards

* Eradicating extreme poverty and reducing inequality

* Ending hunger and all forms of malnutrition

* Making food systems more efficient, inclusive and resilient

* Improving income earning opportunities in rural areas and addressing the root causes of migration

* Building resilience to protracted crises, disasters and conflicts

* Preventing transboundary and emerging agriculture and food system threats

* Addressing the need for coherent and effective national and international governance

 

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