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  • 摘要:

    使用化石燃料油运行的内燃机机提供约25%的全球功率(每年消耗约30亿吨燃油 — 见图1)),为此,它们的排放量约占全球温室气体(GHG)排放量的10%(图2)。多年来,减少燃油消耗和排放一直是发动机研究人员和制造商的目标,这可以在本《国际发动机研究杂志》(IJER)上发表的二十年具有开创性的同行评审文章中看到。确实,已经取得了重大进展,使当今的内燃机成为技术奇迹。但是,最近,排放丑闻严重打击了内燃机的声誉,这威胁了该技术为减少交通运输部门的排放做出重大贡献的能力。作为回应,已经提出了用纯电动车代替车辆内燃机的提议,其预期目标是进一步减少燃料消耗和排放,并减少车辆GHG排放

    来源机构: | 点击量:522
  • 摘要:

    使用化石燃料油运行的内燃机机提供约25%的全球功率(每年消耗约30亿吨燃油 — 见图1)),为此,它们的排放量约占全球温室气体(GHG)排放量的10%(图2)。多年来,减少燃油消耗和排放一直是发动机研究人员和制造商的目标,这可以在本《国际发动机研究杂志》(IJER)上发表的二十年具有开创性的同行评审文章中看到。确实,已经取得了重大进展,使当今的内燃机成为技术奇迹。但是,最近,排放丑闻严重打击了内燃机的声誉,这威胁了该技术为减少交通运输部门的排放做出重大贡献的能力。作为回应,已经提出了用纯电动车代替车辆内燃机的提议,其预期目标是进一步减少燃料消耗和排放,并减少车辆GHG排放。

    来源机构: | 点击量:809
  • 摘要:

    2018年,欧洲疾病预防控制中心(ECDC)监测了83种健康威胁,其中21种来自欧盟外。在2018年发布的102份早期预警和应急系统(EWRS)中,有17份导致了新的威胁,7份产生了快速风险评估(RRA),总共产生了35份RRA(包括快速爆发评估),并与成员国和欧洲委员会分享。2018年抗菌素耐药性和医院获得性感染(ARHAI)、新出现的病媒传播疾病(EVD)和疫苗可预防的疾病(VPD)威胁数量明显增加。几乎一半的RRA涉及EVD特定计划,特别是公众对埃博拉病毒病和西尼罗河病毒感染的关注。西尼罗河病毒感染的2018年传播季节比平时更早开始,病例数量明显多于往年。气候变化可能会为未来几年内媒介传播疾病的爆发创造有利条件。

    来源机构: 欧洲疾病预防控制中心 | 点击量:15632
  • 摘要:

    The global climate is changing rapidly and countries need clear direction on how best to adapt to these changes. Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is becoming an increasingly popular strategy, especially in poor countries where dependence on natural resources for lives and livelihoods is high. But EbA implementation is neither widespread nor consistent, partly due to a shortage of documented evidence relating to its effectiveness. This report shares results from research assessing EbA effectiveness at 13 case study sites in 12 countries to help address this gap. It also describes political, institutional and governance-related conditions that facilitate or inhibit effective EbA at each site.

    来源机构: 生物多样性公约 | 点击量:15719
  • 摘要:

    Chinese investment in Cameroon – in roads, water, electricity, ports, agribusiness and forestry - is estimated to be worth two times more than all other sources of investment combined. But it comes with major implications for forests and community livelihoods - questionable sustainability of investments and sometimes violation of laws and exacerbation of poverty amongst the rural population. This report introduces the nature and scale of the issues involved and the project which has engaged with them. It describes efforts made to improve policy and practice in China-Cameroon forest issues and outlines some ways forward. Further engagement, by those who in the next few years can continue to build the evidence base for the right action, the capacity to use it and the practical changes to make a difference, is sorely needed.

    来源机构: 生物多样性公约 | 点击量:16634
  • 6   2019-07-16 2018年澳大利亚图书馆与信息协会年度报告 (编译服务:图书情报)     
    摘要:

    2018 ALIA Annual Report

    来源机构: 澳大利亚图书馆与信息协会 | 点击量:10900
  • 7   2019-07-16 ARL 2017-2018年度薪酬调查 (编译服务:图书情报)     
    摘要:

    This report analyzes salary data for all professional staff working in the 123 ARL member libraries during FY2017–2018. Data for 10,518 professional staff members were reported this year for the 114 ARL university libraries, including their law and medical libraries (862 staff members reported by 72 medical libraries and 715 staff members reported by 74 law libraries). For the 9 nonuniversity ARL members, data were reported for 3,259 professional staff members. Beginning, median, and average salaries by race, sex, years of experience, geographic region, and professional position for research, university, law, and medical libraries are covered.

    来源机构: 研究图书馆协会 | 点击量:10113
  • 摘要:

    A newly released American Library Association (ALA) report marks the 10th anniversary of the American Dream Literacy Initiative and celebrates the many ways that participating public libraries have transformed lives, strengthened their communities, and advocated tirelessly for adult literacy and lifelong learning.

    Funded by the Dollar General Literacy Foundation, the American Dream Literacy Initiative offers grants to U.S. public libraries to expand services for adult English language learners (ELL) or adults in need of basic education and workforce development. More than $1.5 million in funding has been distributed to 188 libraries since the program’s inception, reaching approximately 25,000 English language learners.

    With grants of $5,000 to $15,000, participating libraries have developed new courses, expanded their print and digital collections, increased access to technology, implemented new strategies for inclusion, and developed sustainable partnerships with organizations across their communities.

    View “American Dream Literacy Initiative: How 10 Years of Funding Has Helped Libraries Transform Thousands of Lives.”

    Findings shared in the report include:

    Employment is the No. 1 reason English language learners access their public library. Other reasons include supporting children in school, language acquisition, computer/internet use, education and citizenship.

    American Dream funding leads to deeper community connections. More than 65 percent of participating libraries reported that their American Dream grant funding improved networking with community partners and other libraries.

    Partnership is beneficial to program longevity. Grantees that developed partnerships were seven times more likely to have sustained their English language learner services.

    The report also highlights successes from American Dream libraries.

    Sterling Municipal Library (Baytown, Texas) saw library users increase 43 percent over the grant period; use of Rosetta Stone software increased from 252 to 426 hours.

    Guilderland (New York) Public Library trained 24 tutors who worked with 35 students both one-on-one and in small groups.

    Terrebonne Parish (Louisiana) Library System created Conectado, a campaign that included courses, story times and festivals to engage adult English language learners and celebrate Hispanic culture.

    Louisville (Kentucky) Free Public Library purchased iPads and software to help students study for citizenship and GED exams, improve their pronunciation, and learn English idioms and grammar.

    The American Dream Literacy Initiative is administered by ALA’s Office for Diversity, Literacy and Outreach Services (ODLOS) and Public Programs Office.

    来源机构: 美国图书馆协会 | 点击量:15657
  • 9   2019-07-16 2019年发展和获取信息报告 (编译服务:图书情报)     
    摘要:

    Development and Access to Information (DA2I) is a series of reports, led by the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) in partnership with the Technology and Social Change Group, University of Washington (TASCHA), that monitor the progress countries are making towards fulfilling their commitment to promote meaningful access to information (A2I) as part of the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals.

    来源机构: 国际图联 | 点击量:9587
  • 摘要:

    This report characterizes and synthesizes the findings from 25 impact assessments funded under SPIA’s Strengthening Impact Assessment in CGIAR (SIAC) program between 2013 and 2017 (See Table 2 for full list). The studies examine the impacts of a wide range of inno-vations from three core areas of CGIAR research—crop improvement, production systems management, and policy. Studies used a range of methods, from RCTs to qualitative ap-proaches, depending on the specific research question being addressed.

    来源机构: 独立科学与合作理事会 | 点击量:5112