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An unreported Zika outbreak in 2017 detected through travel surveillance and genetics
Science News from research organizationsAn unreported Zika outbreak in 2017 detected through travel surveillance and genetics. Date: August 22, 2019 Source: Cell Press Summary: By sequencing virus genomes from infected travelers, analyzing travel patterns and mosquito modeling, researchers unearthed a spike in Zika cases from travelers returning from Cuba during the summer of 2017 that was not captured by local reports. Share:FUL. STORY Public health experts report August 22 in the journal Cell that surveillance of international travelers for infectious disease can help reconstruct unreported or undetected outbreaks of Zika and other viruses. By sequencing virus genomes from infected travelers, analyzing travel patterns and mosquito modeling, the researchers unearthed a spike in Zika cases from travelers returning from Cuba during the summer of 2017 that was not captured by local reports, says study co-author Nathan D. Grubaugh, an epidemiologist at the Yale School of Public Health.advertisement Three years ago, a well-publicized Zika epidemic in Brazil was tied to microcephaly and other congenital abnormalities. Zika is also associated with neurologic disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome. However, disparities in data make it unclear whether the virus -- transmitted by the mosquito Aedes aegypti -- is still a threat in the Americas. "As the larger Zika epidemic in the Americas appeared to be waning towards the end of 2016, we became interested in understanding whether the epidemic was truly gone or whether 'hidden' transmissions could still be occurring," says study co-author Scott F. Michael, a biologist at Florida Gulf Coast University. Accurately pinpointing cases of Zika can be challenging: its symptoms mimic those of other diseases; and regions with inadequate health care systems often lack reliable, inexpensive diagnostic tools. Early and rapid pathogen detection is critical in preventing outbreaks from spinning into large-scale epidemics, says co-author Kristian Andersen, an infectious disease researcher at Scripps Research. Based on travel incidence rates reported by other countries, in 2017, Cuba would have experienced 1,000 to 20,000 Zika cases, Andersen says. However, only 187 cases were reported in 2016 and none in 2017. Between June 2017 and October 2018, more than 98 percent of the travel-associated cases reported in Florida and Europe came from Cuba. The timing of this outbreak was a mystery: conditions in Cuba could have supported a large Zika outbreak in 2016. Why did Cuba's cases jump in 2017? The main resource for reporting Zika cases is the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), which relies on local case reporting from member countries. To check the accuracy of PAHO results, the researchers sequenced Zika virus genomes from infected travelers in Florida and detected the unreported spike in cases in 2017. The researchers determined that the delay was likely caused by a successful mosquito eradication campaign that had taken place in Cuba in 2016. "We show that the 2017 Zika outbreak was sparked by long-lived lineages of Zika virus introduced a year prior," Grubaugh says. "Our data suggest that while mosquito control in Cuba may initially have been effective at mitigating Zika virus transmission, such measures may need to be maintained to be effective."advertisement Story Source: Materials provided by Cell Press. Note: Content may be edited for style and length. Journal Reference: Nathan D. Grubaugh, Sharada Saraf, Karthik Gangavarapu, Alexander Watts, Amanda L. Tan, Rachel J. Oidtman, Jason T. L.dner, Glenn Oliveira, Nathaniel L. Matteson, Moritz U.G. Kraemer, Chantal B.F. Vogels, Aaron Hentoff, Deepit Bhatia, Danielle Stanek, Blake Scott, Vanessa L.ndis, Ian Stryker, Marshall R. Cone, Edgar W. Kopp, Andrew C. Cannons, L.a Heberlein-L.rson, Stephen White, L.ah D. Gillis, Michael J. Ricciardi, Jaclyn Kwal, Paola K. L.chtenberger, Diogo M. Magnani, David I. Watkins, Gustavo Palacios, Davidson H. Hamer, L.uren M. Gardner, T. Alex Perkins, Guy Baele, Kamran Khan, Andrea Morrison, Sharon Isern, Scott F. Michael, Kristian G. Andersen. Travel Surveillance and Genomics Uncover a Hidden Zika Outbreak during the Waning Epidemic. Cell, 2019; 178 (5): 1057 DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2019.07.018 . Cite This Page:ML.. APA. Chicago.Cell Press. "An unreported Zika outbreak in 2017 detected through travel surveillance and genetics." ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 22 August 2019. . Cell Press. (2019, August 22). An unreported Zika outbreak in 2017 detected through travel surveillance and genetics. ScienceDaily. Retrieved August 22, 2019 from www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190822113356.htm Cell Press. "An unreported Zika outbreak in 2017 detected through travel surveillance and genetics." ScienceDaily. www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190822113356.htm (accessed August 22, 2019). advertisementREL.TED TOPICSHealth & MedicineZika . Infectious Diseases . Viruses . Plants & AnimalsZika Virus Research . Virology . Pests and Parasites . Science & SocietyPublic Health . Surveillance . Travel and Recreation . advertisement REL.TED TERMSWest Nile virus . Measles . Epstein-Barr virus . Eustachian tube . Autism . Rabies . Rubella . Natural killer cell . REL.TED STORIESCalifornia Aedes Mosquitoes Capable of Spreading Zika. June 21, 2018 — Over the last five years, Zika virus has emerged as a significant global human health threat following outbreaks in South and Central America. Now, researchers have shown that invasive mosquitoes in ... read moreZika Virus in Canadian Travelers More Severe Than Expected. Mar. 6, 2017 — A new study sheds light on the acquisition and features of Zika virus in Canadian travelers, indicating it was as commonly confirmed as dengue in people returning from the Americas and the Caribbean ... read moreZika Virus Can L.ve for Hours on Hard, Non-Porous Surfaces. Nov. 15, 2016 — The Zika virus is most commonly transmitted in humans as the result of a bite from an infected mosquito or from an infected human to another human. What is not well known is that the virus also can ... read moreSouthern Europe Risks Zika Outbreaks This Summer. June 10, 2016 — Established Aedes-mosquito population could spread the Zika virus in Europe this summer if infected travelers introduce the virus. An analysis of temperatures, vectorial capacity, basic reproductive ... read more FROM AROUND THE WEB Below are relevant articles that may interest you. 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