The Mediterranean dietary pattern has been linked with reduced cardiovascular disease incidence and mortality. Components of the Mediterranean diet associated with better cardiovascular health include low consumption of meat and meat products, moderate consumption of ethanol (mostly from wine), and high consumption of vegetables, fruits, nuts, legumes, fish, and olive oil. Increasing evidence indicates that the synergy among these components results in beneficial changes in intermediate pathways of cardiometabolic risk, such as lipids, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress, inflammation, and vasoreactivity. As a result, consumption of a Mediterranean dietary pattern favorably affects numerous cardiovascular disease risk factors, such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes. Moreover, strong evidence links this dietary pattern with reduced cardiovascular disease incidence, reoccurrence, and mortality. This review evaluates the current evidence behind the cardioprotective effects of a Mediterranean dietary pattern.
Vitamin E modulates the activity of several signal transduction enzymes with consequent alterations of gene expression. At the molecular level, vitamin E may directly bind to these enzymes and compete with their substrates, or it may change their activity by redox regulation. The translocation of several of these enzymes to the plasma membrane is regulated by vitamin E, suggesting the modulation of protein-membrane interactions as a common mechanism for vitamin E action. Enzyme-membrane interactions can be affected by vitamin E by interference with binding to specific membrane lipids or by altering cellular structures such as membrane microdomains (lipid rafts). Moreover, competition by vitamin E for common binding sites within lipid transport proteins may alter the traffic of lipid mediators and thus affect their signaling and enzymatic conversion. In this review, the main effects of vitamin E on enzymes involved in signal transduction are summarized and possible molecular mechanisms leading to enzyme modulation are evaluated.
Dietary lipids are efficiently absorbed by the small intestine, incorporated into triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (chylomicrons), and transported in the circulation to various tissues. Intestinal lipid absorption and mobilization and chylomicron synthesis and secretion are highly regulated processes. Elevated chylomicron production rate contributes to the dyslipidemia seen in common metabolic disorders such as insulin-resistant states and type 2 diabetes and likely increases the risk for atherosclerosis seen in these conditions. An in-depth understanding of the regulation of chylomicron production may provide leads for the development of drugs that could be of therapeutic utility in the prevention of dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. Chylomicron secretion is subject to regulation by various factors, including diet, body weight, genetic variants, hormones, nutraceuticals, medications, and emerging interventions such as bariatric surgical procedures. In this review we discuss the regulation of chylomicron production, mechanisms that underlie chylomicron dysregulation, and potential avenues for future research.
Diet is a leading modifiable risk factor for chronic disease, but it remains difficult to measure accurately due to the error and bias inherent in self-reported methods of diet assessment. Consequently, there is a pressing need for more objective biomarkers of diet for use in health research. The stable isotope ratios of light elements are a promising set of candidate biomarkers because they vary naturally and reproducibly among foods, and those variations are captured in molecules and tissues with high fidelity. Recent studies have identified valid isotopic measures of short- and long-term sugar intake, meat intake, and fish intake in specific populations. These studies provide a strong foundation for validating stable isotopic biomarkers in the general US population. Approaches to improve specificity for specific foods are needed; for example, by modeling intake using multiple stable isotope ratios or by isolating and measuring specific molecules linked to foods of interest. .
The understanding of manganese (Mn) biology, in particular its cellular regulation and role in neurological disease, is an area of expanding interest. Mn is an essential micronutrient that is required for the activity of a diverse set of enzymatic proteins (e.g., arginase and glutamine synthase). Although necessary for life, Mn is toxic in excess. Thus, maintaining appropriate levels of intracellular Mn is critical. Unlike other essential metals, cell-level homeostatic mechanisms of Mn have not been identified. In this review, we discuss common forms of Mn exposure, absorption, and transport via regulated uptake/exchange at the gut and blood-brain barrier and via biliary excretion. We present the current understanding of cellular uptake and efflux as well as subcellular storage and transport of Mn. In addition, we highlight the Mn-dependent and Mn-responsive pathways implicated in the growing evidence of its role in Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. We conclude with suggestions for future focuses of Mn health-related research.
Beef makes a substantial contribution to food security, providing protein, energy and also essential micro-nutrients to human populations. Rumination allows cattle – and other ruminant species – to digest fibrous feeds that cannot be directly consumed by humans and thus to make a net positive contribution to food balances. This contribution is of particular importance in marginal areas, where agro-ecological conditions and weak infrastructures do not offer much alternative. It is also valuable where cattle convert crop residues and by-products into edible products and where they contribute to soil fertility through their impact on nutrients and organic matter cycles.
At the same time, environmental sustainability issues are acute. They chiefly relate to the low efficiency of beef cattle in converting natural resources into edible products. Water use, land use, biomass appropriation and greenhouse gas emissions are for example typically higher per unit of edible product in beef systems than in any other livestock systems, even when corrected for nutritional quality. This particularly causes environmental pressure when production systems are specialized towards the delivery of edible products, in large volumes.
The paper discusses environmental challenges at global level, recognizing the large diversity of systems. Beef production is faced with a range of additional sustainability challenges, such as changing consumer perceptions, resilience to climate change, animal health and inequities in access to land and water resources. Entry-points for environmental sustainability improvement are discussed within this broader development context.
The knowledge of the molecular organization of living organisms evolved considerably during the last years. The methodologies associated also progressed with the development of the high-throughput sequencing (SNP array, RNAseq, etc.) and of genomic tools allowing the simultaneous analysis of hundreds or thousands of genes, proteins or metabolites. In farm animals, some proteins, mRNAs or metabolites whose abundance has been associated with meat quality traits have been detected in pig, cattle, chicken. They constitute biomarkers for the assessment and prediction of qualities of interest in each species, with potential biomarkers across species. The ongoing development of rapid methods will allow their use for decision-making and management tools in slaughterhouses, to better allocate carcasses or cuts to the appropriate markets. Besides, their application on living animals will help to improve genetic selection and to adapt a breeding system to fulfill expected quality level. The ultimate goal is to propose effective molecular tools for the management of product quality in meat production chains.
The nutrition transition encompasses a set of major shifts in human diet and nutritional status, throughout history and that is influenced by a wide range of factors such as income, technical change, urbanisation and culture. High-income societies are witnessing a shift towards diets with more fat, sugar, processed foods and less fibre, leading to a sharp increase in non-communicable diseases, such as obesity. This trend can also be observed among the middle classes of emerging countries. However, increasing evidence suggests that a final shift is occurring, following behavioural change towards consuming higher-quality fats, more whole grains, fruit and vegetables, and particularly less meat. The purpose of this paper is twofold. First, an assessment is made of where different countries are located in the different phases of the nutrition transition. Second, a qualitative investigation is made into the factors enhancing and hindering the latest phase of the transition—particularly towards less meat consumption—taking into account cultural differences between consumer groups across countries. The analysis of both objectives generates insights into possible future scenarios of meat consumption.
Animal welfare is an important pillar of sustainability in meat production and is associated with other aspects of this concept, such as animal health, productivity, food safety, food quality and efficiency from a cost of production perspective. These interactions are present at all stages of the production cycle, from the beginning of the animals' farm life until their slaughter. On farm, some of the main welfare issues are related to neonatal mortality and low level of sensory input, which are likely to engender stereotypes and injurious behaviours, such as tail-biting. Pre-slaughter handling refers to the interaction between humans and animals prior to and during transport and at slaughter. Strategies to reduce pre-slaughter stress will benefit carcass and meat quality, being the training of stockpeople one of the most cost-effective policies to improve animal welfare. These strategies include also the implementation of standard monitoring procedures to detect signs of consciousness after stunning, before sticking and during bleeding until death occurs.
The potential health risk associated with excessive dietary intake of fat and cholesterol has led to a renewed interest in replacing animal fat with nutritionally-balanced unsaturated oil in processed meats. However, as oils are more fluid and unsaturated than fats, one must overcome the challenge of maintaining both physical and chemical (oxidative) stabilities of prepared emulsions. Apart from physical entrapments, an emulsion droplet to be incorporated into a meat protein gel matrix (batter) should be equipped with an interactive protein membrane rather than a small surfactant, and the classical DLVO stabilization theory becomes less applicable. This review paper describes the steric effects along with chemical roles (radical scavenging and metal ion chelation) of proteins and their structurally modified derivatives as potential interface-building materials for oxidatively stable meat emulsions.
Dietary fatty acids influence immunologic homeostasis, but their effect on initiation of colitis, an immune-mediated disease, is not well established. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated that high doses of dietary fish oil increased colon inflammation and dysplasia in a model of infection-induced colitis. In the current study, we assessed the effects of high dose dietary fish oil, 6% by weight, on colon inflammation, neutrophil recruitment and function, and mucus layer integrity in a genetically susceptible, colitis-prone mouse model in the absence of infection. Fish oil fed SMAD3-/- mice had increased colon inflammation evidenced by increased numbers of systemic and local neutrophils and increased neutrophil chemoattractant and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the colon. Mucus layer thickness in the cecum and goblet cell numbers in the cecum and colon in fish oil fed mice were reduced compared to control. Fish oil consumption affected colitis in male and female mice differently. Compared to female control mice, neutrophils from fish oil fed female mice had reduced ROS upon ex vivo stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate while fish oil fed male mice produced similar ROS compared to control-fed male mice. In summary, dietary fish oil impaired mucus layer integrity and was associated with colon inflammation characterized by increased neutrophil numbers and altered neutrophil function. High dose fish oil may have detrimental effects in populations genetically susceptible for inflammatory bowel disease and these effects may differ between males and females.
Associations between socio-demographic and psychological factors and food choice patterns were explored in unemployed young people who constitute a vulnerable group at risk of poor dietary health. Volunteers (N = 168), male (n = 97) and female (n = 71), aged 15–25 years were recruited through United Kingdom (UK) community-based organisations serving young people not in education training or employment (NEET). Survey questionnaire enquired on food poverty, physical activity and measured responses to the Food Involvement Scale (FIS), Food Self-Efficacy Scale (FSS) and a 19-item Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ). A path analysis was undertaken to explore associations between age, gender, food poverty, age at leaving school, food self-efficacy (FS-E), food involvement (FI) (kitchen; uninvolved; enjoyment), physical activity and the four food choice patterns (junk food; healthy; fast food; high fat). FS-E was strong in the model and increased with age. FS-E was positively associated with more frequent choice of healthy food and less frequent junk or high fat food (having controlled for age, gender and age at leaving school). FI (kitchen and enjoyment) increased with age. Higher FI (kitchen) was associated with less frequent junk food and fast food choice. Being uninvolved with food was associated with more frequent fast food choice. Those who left school after the age of 16 years reported more frequent physical activity. Of the indirect effects, younger individuals had lower FI (kitchen) which led to frequent junk and fast food choice. Females who were older had higher FI (enjoyment) which led to less frequent fast food choice. Those who had left school before the age of 16 had low food involvement (uninvolved) which led to frequent junk food choice. Multiple indices implied that data were a good fit to the model which indicated a need to enhance food self-efficacy and encourage food involvement in order to improve dietary health among these disadvantaged young people.
The present study aims to improve the sweet aftertaste and overall acceptability of green tea infusion by hydrolyzing (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and (−)-epicatechin gallate (ECG) with tannase. The results showed that the intensity of the sweet aftertaste and the score of overall acceptability of the green tea infusion significantly increased with the extension of the hydrolyzing treatment. (−)-Epigallocatechin (EGC) and (−)-epicatechin (EC) were found to be the main contributors for the sweet aftertaste, based on a trial compatibility with EGCG, ECG, EGC, and EC monomers, and a synergistic action between EGC and EC to sweet aftertaste was observed. A 2.5:1 (EGC/EC) ratio with a total concentration of 3.5 mmol/L gave the most satisfying sweet aftertaste, and the astringency significantly inhibited the development of the sweet aftertaste. These results can help us to produce a tea beverage with excellent sweet aftertaste by hydrolyzing the green tea infusion with tannase.
The risk of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) survival in blade-tenderized beef is a concern for beef processors. This study evaluated the internalization and post-cooking survival of individual STEC serogroups (O157:H7, O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, and O145) in blade-tenderized beef steaks with different quality traits. Strip loins representing four combinations of USDA Quality Grade (Choice or Select) and pH category (High pH or Normal pH) were inoculated (106 log CFU/cm2 attachment) with individual STEC serogroups before storage (14 days), blade tenderization, and cooking (50, 60, 71, or 85 °C). Serogroup populations on raw steak surfaces and internal cores were determined. Rapid-based methods were used to detect the internal presence of STEC in cooked steaks. Internalization and post-cooking survival varied among STECs. All serogroups, except O45 and O121, were detected in the internal cores of steaks cooked to 50 °C, while O103, O111, and O145 STEC were detected in steaks cooked to 50, 60, and 71 °C.
Eating habits are developed during the preschool years and track into adulthood, but few studies have quantified dietary quality of meals packed by parents for preschool children enrolled in early care and education centers.
Our aim was to evaluate the dietary quality of preschoolers’ sack lunches using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) 2010 to provide parents of preschool children with guidance to increase the healthfulness of their child’s lunch.
This study is a cross-sectional analysis of baseline dietary data from the Lunch Is in the Bag trial.
A total of 607 parent−child dyads from 30 early care and education centers in Central and South Texas were included.
Main outcome measures.
Total and component scores of the HEI were computed using data obtained from direct observations of packed lunches and of children’s consumption.
Three-level regression models with random intercepts at the early care and education center and child level were used; all models were adjusted for child sex, age, and body mass index (calculated as kg/m2).
Mean HEI-2010 total scores were 58 for lunches packed and 52 for lunches consumed, out of 100 possible points. Mean HEI component scores for packed and consumed lunches were lowest for greens and beans (6% and 8% of possible points), total vegetables (33% and 28%), seafood and plant proteins (33% and 29%), and whole grains (38% and 34%); and highest for empty calories (85% and 68% of possible points), total fruit (80% and 70%), whole fruit (79% and 64%), and total protein foods (76% and 69%).
Parents of preschool children pack lunches with low dietary quality that lack vegetables, plant proteins, and whole grains, as measured by the HEI. Education of parents and care providers in early care and education centers is vital to ensure that preschoolers receive high dietary-quality meals that promote their preference for and knowledge of a healthy diet.
This month’s featured paper is from Nutrition Research Reviews journal, and is entitled ’Understanding meal patterns: definitions, methodology and impact on nutrient intake and diet quality'. The team, Rebecca M. Leech, Anthony Worsley, Anna Timperio and Sarah A. McNaughton from the Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research (C-PAN), School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University reports on the review of literture on adults' meal patterns, including how meal patterns have previously been defined and their associations with nutrient intakes and diet quality.
A recent shift in nutrition research has been towards examining dietary patterns which acknowledges that individual nutrients and foods are highly interrelated. However a poorly understood, yet fundamental step between the intake of individual nutrients/foods and dietary patterns are meals. Examining food intakes at the level of a meal provides evidence on the way people actually consume foods. This has the potential to inform the development of messages and strategies promoting simple and feasible changes to food habits in the population.
A major barrier to interpreting studies in this field of research has been the lack of a clear definition of a meal and/or snack. The need for research to develop a standardised definition for meals and snacks was also recommended in a recent report released by the American Dietary Guidelines Committee. The present paper summarises and critiques meal pattern research, including previous approaches to characterising, defining and measuring meals. The implications of these approaches were also explored in relation to associations between meal patterns, energy and nutrient intakes and overall diet quality among adults.
Metabolite profiling has been used to assess the potential for unintended composition changes in potato (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Desirée) tubers, which have been genetically modified (GM) to reduce glycoalkaloid content, via the independent down-regulation of three genes SGT1, SGT2 and SGT3 known to be involved in glycoalkaloid biosynthesis. Differences between the three groups of antisense lines and control lines were assessed using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS) and gas chromatography (GC)–MS, and data analysed using principal component analysis and analysis of variance. Compared with the wild-type (WT) control, LC–MS revealed not only the expected changes in specific glycoalkaloid levels in the GM lines, but also significant changes in several other metabolites, some of which were explicable in terms of known pathways. Analysis of polar and non-polar metabolites by GC–MS revealed other significant (unintended) differences between SGT lines and the WT, but also between the WT control and other control lines used.
Genetically modified foods are a major concern around the world due to the lack of information concerning their safety and health effects. This work evaluates differences, at the proteomic level, between two types of crop samples: transgenic (MON810 event with the Cry1Ab gene, which confers resistance to insects) and non-transgenic maize flour commercialized in Brazil. The 2-D DIGE technique revealed 99 differentially expressed spots, which were collected in 2-D PAGE gels and identified via mass spectrometry (nESI-QTOF MS/MS). The abundance of protein differences between the transgenic and non-transgenic samples could arise from genetic modification or as a result of an environmental influence pertaining to the commercial sample. The major functional category of proteins identified was related to disease/defense and, although differences were observed between samples, no toxins or allergenic proteins were found.
High-amylose cereal starches are attracting considerable attention because of their potential health benefits. In this study, the molecular structures and functional properties of high-amylose starches from a rice transgenic line and commercial maize were investigated and compared. High-amylose rice and maize starches had apparent amylose contents of 65.6 and 49.4%, respectively. Compared with high-amylose maize starch, high-amylose rice starch had amylopectin with a higher long branch-chain content and average chain length and with a lower short branch-chain content and degree of branching. High-amylose rice and maize starches exhibited C-type and CA-type crystallinity, respectively. The high-amylose rice starch had a significantly higher gelatinization temperature and lower gelatinization enthalpy, swelling power and pasting viscosity than high-amylose maize starch. High-amylose rice starch had a significantly higher resistance to acid hydrolysis and slightly higher resistance to amylase hydrolysis than high-amylose maize starch. Gelatinized and retrograded starches from high-amylose rice had significantly lower rapidly digestible starch and higher resistant starch contents than high-amylose maize starch. These results were also compared with those obtained from normal rice and maize starches. The significantly different molecular structures of rice and maize starches resulted in their different functional properties.
The effect of Ultra-High Pressure Homogenization (UHPH, 100?C300MPa) on the physicochemical properties of oil-in-water emulsions prepared with 4.0% (w/v) of soy protein isolate (SPI) and soybean oil (10 and 20%, v/v) was studied and compared to emulsions treated by conventional homogenization (CH, 15MPa). CH emulsions were prepared with non-heated and heated (95??C for 15min) SPI dispersions. Emulsions were characterized by particle size determination with laser diffraction, rheological properties using a rotational rheometer by applying measurements of flow curve and by transmission electron microscopy. The variation on particle size and creaming was assessed by Turbiscan? analysis, and visual observation of the emulsions was also carried out. UHPH emulsions showed much smaller d3.2 values and greater physical stability than CH emulsions. The thermal treatment of SPI prior CH process did not improve physical stability properties. In addition, emulsions containing 20% of oil exhibited greater physical stability compared to emulsions containing 10% of oil. Particularly, UHPH emulsions treated at 100 and 200MPa with 20% of oil were the most stable due to low particle size values (d3.2 and Span), greater viscosity and partial protein denaturation. These results address the physical stability improvement of protein isolate-stabilized emulsions by using the emerging UHPH technology.
The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) welcomes Japan’s donation of US$6 million to support WFP’s response in Eb0la-affected Sierra Leone, including support to some 3,000 Ebola survivors across the country.
“As we fight to get to zero Ebola cases in Sierra Leone, Japan’s generous assistance will enable WFP to keep supporting people who have beaten Ebola and now need help to get back on their feet. Japan’s contribution will enable mobile phone cash support for survivors and their families, and it will go a long way in helping survivors make a full recovery,” said WFP Sierra Leone Country Director, Gon Myers.
As part of its Ebola response, WFP ensures that survivors’ food and nutritional needs are met as they return home to their communities and pick up their jobs and lives. Survivors receive a one-month package of rice, beans, oil, and a nutritious corn-soya blend. WFP is also implementing a mobile cash transfer programme to provide two additional months of support to survivors, to allow them to purchase their own foods in local markets. This gives survivors more choice over the food they eat while boosting local markets, some of which were closed for months due to the Ebola outbreak and movement restrictions.
The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) West Bank and Gaza Mission (WBG) is providing a $13 million U.S. contribution to the United Nations World Food Programme (WFP) for food assistance in the West Bank and Gaza.
This contribution will enable WFP to provide 95,000 food-insecure people in Gaza with more than 6,700 metric tons of food assistance. In addition, this money will be used for food distributions to 41,500 people in the West Bank and to support the electronic food voucher program benefiting 50,000 people there. These activities not only allow an immediate response to the humanitarian needs in Gaza, but also provide continued support to Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza who struggle to buy or produce enough food to live a normal, healthy life. In addition, the electronic voucher project in the West Bank is an innovative way to provide food assistance while supporting resilient societies as well as the development of small businesses and the local economy through locally sourced foods.
Prior to this $13 million commitment, U.S. contributions to WFP since July 2014 have totaled more than $19 million, providing more than 15,000 metric tons of food to some half a million vulnerable Palestinians in the West Bank and Gaza. These results are due to the excellent partnership between the USAID and WFP who have worked together in the West Bank and Gaza for more than a decade. The U.S.-funded food assistance activities are implemented in the West Bank in Gaza by WFP in partnership with the U.S. NGO, Global Communities. The U.S. Government, through USAID, is the leading provider of bilateral development assistance to the Palestinians, having provided more than $4.6 billion since 1994 for programs in the areas of education; health and humanitarian assistance; private enterprise; democracy and governance; and water resources and infrastructure.
As the sun-filled, breezy days of summer come to an end, it’s time for teachers and students to make their way back to school. The start of a new school year is an exciting time for students. It’s a new beginning with the promise of new friends and new experiences. And for registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs), the new school year brings the opportunity to feed bright young minds and empower them to make healthy choices—choices that will help them grow into healthy adults and achieve the bright futures they deserve.
In 2015, malnutrition continues to be a public health problem that has broad impact on health outcomes, mortality rates, and financial costs of health care around the world. People in low-, middle-, and high-income countries are all vulnerable to the grave tolls of malnutrition. Malnutrition can affect individuals of all ages—infants and young children, adolescents, adult men and women, and especially older people. Malnutrition encompasses both under- and overnutrition, as well as specific nutrient deficiencies.
During 2012, Massachusetts adopted comprehensive school competitive food and beverage standards that closely align with Institute of Medicine recommendations and Smart Snacks in School national standards.
We examined the extent to which a sample of Massachusetts middle schools and high schools sold foods and beverages that were compliant with the state competitive food and beverage standards after the first year of implementation, and complied with four additional aspects of the regulations.
Observational cohort study with data collected before implementation (Spring 2012) and 1 year after implementation (Spring 2013).
School districts (N=37) with at least one middle school and one high school participated.
Main outcome measures.
Percent of competitive foods and beverages that were compliant with Massachusetts standards and compliance with four additional aspects of the regulations. Data were collected via school site visits and a foodservice director questionnaire.
Statistical analyses performed.
Multilevel models were used to examine change in food and beverage compliance over time.
More products were available in high schools than middle schools at both time points. The number of competitive beverages and several categories of competitive food products sold in the sample of Massachusetts schools decreased following the implementation of the standards. Multilevel models demonstrated a 47-percentage-point increase in food and 46-percentage-point increase in beverage compliance in Massachusetts schools from 2012 to 2013. Overall, total compliance was higher for beverages than foods.
This study of a group of Massachusetts schools demonstrated the feasibility of schools making substantial changes in response to requirements for healthier competitive foods, even in the first year of implementation.
The effects of heat treatment on the emulsifying properties of pea proteins were investigated. Thermal treatment of pea proteins at 95 °C for 30 min increased the extent of protein aggregation, and the hydrodynamic diameter increased with the increasing of heated protein concentration (ch). Electrophoresis showed that acidic and basic (AB) subunits as well as convicilin in unheated pea proteins were involved in the formation of polymers linked by disulfide bonds (SS) after heat treatment (95 °C, 30 min). At different protein concentrations in the continuous phase (c: 0.1%–0.5%, w/v) with constant oil fraction of 0.1, emulsions formed by heated pea proteins (95 °C, 30 min) showed higher protein adsorption percentage and creaming stability than those formed by unheated proteins. Proteins adsorbed at the oil-water interface contained higher percentages of vicilin and basic subunit of legumin (leg B) in emulsions stabilized by heated pea proteins than in those stabilized by unheated proteins. Moreover, increasing c was conducive to the formation of emulsions with greater stability against creaming. In addition, emulsion viscosity increased with the increasing of ch. These results indicated that the heated pea proteins, as compared to the unheated pea proteins, exhibited a greater potential to act as a kind of excellent emulsifiers.
This article expands upon the summary, “In Brief: Achieving a Transparent, Actionable Framework for Public–Private Partnerships for Food and Nutrition Research,” published in this issue of the Journal (pp 1318-1319) and the full publication,1 and analyzes the impact of the framework on registered dietitian nutritionists (RDNs) and the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. In particular, this narrative will focus on the views of RDNs who attended the working group meeting that established the framework—Sonja Connor, MS, RDN, LD, FAND, 2014-2015 president of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, and Alison Kretser, MS, RD, director of Science Programs at the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI) North America, as well as the author—to understand the implications for RDNs in different practice settings.
Effects of ultrasound-accelerated debittering (UAD) at different NaOH concentrations (1.50, 1.75, and 2.00% w/v) and temperatures (25, 30 and 35 °C) on physicochemical and textural properties of olive fruits were investigated and compared with conventional debittering (CD). In UAD, processing time decreased up to 48% in comparison with CD method. During debittering, increasing moisture and decreasing nitrogen and ash contents of the samples were observed. In UAD, reduction rate of phenolic compounds and as a result the speed of debittering process increased in comparison with CD method. UAD was able to reduce textural hardness at a higher rate than CD method. Fatty acid compositions of UAD and CD samples were similar. Both UAD and CD methods similarly caused considerable damages to the structure of olives as observed on micrographs. Overall, UAD method was able to debitter olive fruits at a higher rate without causing any undesirable changes. This can have practical implications in reducing NaOH and water usage for olive processing.
There are two types of adipose tissue with distinct functions – white adipose tissue (WAT) stores chemical energy as triglycerides, whereas brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes energy and releases heat (thermogenesis) in response to sympathetic nerve activity. In humans, treatments that promote greater BAT deposition and/or activity would be highly beneficial in regimes aimed at reducing obesity. Adult humans have restricted populations of prototypical brown adipocytes in the neck and chest areas, but recent advances have established that adipocytes with similar properties, termed “brite” adipocytes, can be recruited in subcutaneous depots thought to be primarily WAT. These brite adipocytes express the protein machinery required for thermogenesis, but to assess brite adipocytes as viable therapeutic targets, we need to understand how to promote conversion of white adipocytes to brite adipocytes and ways to increase optimal energy consumption and thermogenesis in these brite adipocytes. This can be accomplished by pharmacological and nutritional therapies to differing degrees, as reviewed in detail here.
Nutrigenomics diverged from mainstream nutrition science, ideologically, instrumentally and culturally, due to the establishment of a protective niche. That protection is fading. This article chronicles a case in which convergence between nutrigenomics and nutrition science is pursued. Here we report the opportunities and hurdles that researchers within two large Dutch research consortia encountered when trying to engineer collaboration. The most salient hurdles are the complexity of and unfamiliarity with nutrigenomics, unclear and unshared notions of relevance; difficulties in organising data exchange; and the existence of two research cultures. Overcoming these technical and social hurdles will require the development of a shared ‘future’ for the relationship between nutrigenomics and nutrition science.
With increasing global urbanization and environmental threats, ensuring food security for poor city residents is a critical challenge. An ongoing debate is whether urban agriculture (UA) may serve as a pathway to food security for poor urban households. To assess this potential within low-income countries, we used standard systematic review procedures to synthesize findings from 35 peer-reviewed journal articles from 1980 to 2013 that presented data on UA and food security indicators. Though data quality was often lacking, several key findings emerged. Many of the reviewed studies found subsistence to be the primary motivation for practicing UA, followed by financial benefit, with UA substantially contributing to farming households’ food availability in some settings. Results regarding UA’s impact on dietary diversity reveal that in some farming systems UA may provide households with greater access to specific foods. Evidence also indicates that UA can be a key source of household income, though actual returns were low. Furthermore, results show that UA can facilitate women’s contribution to household food availability amid other household responsibilities, and can provide distinct benefits such as economic and social advancement. Although UA participation does not appear to fully eliminate pressure urban households face in obtaining food, a lack of supportive policies may constrain its potential. Municipal planning and agricultural policies that more effectively incorporate UA—and that integrate gender—may diminish barriers to productive UA practice. More rigorous research on UA’s contribution to food security in settings where supportive policies have been enacted would more clearly elucidate these linkages.
Phytoalexins and phytoanticipins are plant defence compounds that generally have antimicrobial properties; they include phenolic compounds, glucosinolates, cyanogenic glycosides, oxylipins and alkaloids, among others. These compounds are highly concentrated in food processing by-products, including peels, seeds, bark, and cereal bran, from which they can be recovered and, excluding those that are toxic, used as plant extracts for food preservation. This would benefit the food industry by generating “clean label” food products, and contribute to mitigate waste disposal problems. The present review describes the occurrence of phytoalexins and phytoanticipins, their enzymatic products, properties, and potential applications as food preservatives.
Authenticity of dairy products has become an urgent issue for producers, researchers, governments, consumers and so on due to the increase of falsification procedures inducing lost large of money as well as the confidence of consumers. The determination of the authenticity and the detection of adulteration of milk and dairy products have been determined by several analytical techniques (e.g., physico-chemical, sensory, chromatography, and so on). Although these methods are considered as the reference ones, they required sophisticated analytical equipment’s and skilled operators; they are also time consuming and need both the purchase and disposal of chemical reagents. Therefore, there is a need to find cheap and fast methods for the determination of the authenticity and the detection of adulteration of these products. Thus, spectroscopic techniques such as fluorescence spectroscopy, near infrared (NIR), mid infrared (MIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), among others, in combination with multivariate data analysis methods could be considered helpful tools in this domain. The advantages and disadvantages of each technique will be also discussed in this review.
Measures of B6 status are categorized as direct biomarkers and as functional biomarkers. Direct biomarkers measure B6 vitamers in plasma/serum, urine and erythrocytes, and among these plasma pyridoxal 5′-phosphate (PLP) is most commonly used. Functional biomarkers include erythrocyte transaminase activities and, more recently, plasma levels of metabolites involved in PLP-dependent reactions, such as the kynurenine pathway, one-carbon metabolism, transsulfuration (cystathionine), and glycine decarboxylation (serine and glycine). Vitamin B6 status is best assessed by using a combination of biomarkers because of the influence of potential confounders, such as inflammation, alkaline phosphatase activity, low serum albumin, renal function, and inorganic phosphate. Ratios between substrate-products pairs have recently been investigated as a strategy to attenuate such influence. These efforts have provided promising new markers such as the PAr index, the 3-hydroxykynurenine:xanthurenic acid ratio, and the oxoglutarate:glutamate ratio. Targeted metabolic profiling or untargeted metabolomics based on mass spectrometry allow the simultaneous quantification of a large number of metabolites, which are currently evaluated as functional biomarkers, using data reduction statistics.
The synthesis of lipids in response to food intake represents a key advantage that allows organisms to survive when energy availability is limited. In mammals, circulating levels of insulin and nutrients, which fluctuate between fasting and feeding, dictate whether lipids are synthesized or catabolized by tissues. The mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR), a kinase that is activated by anabolic signals, plays fundamental roles in regulating lipid biosynthesis and metabolism in response to nutrition. The mTOR kinase nucleates two large protein complexes named mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2). Following their activation, these complexes facilitate the accumulation of triglycerides by promoting adipogenesis and lipogenesis and by shutting down catabolic processes such as lipolysis and β-oxidation. Here, we review and discuss the roles of mTOR complexes in various aspects of lipid metabolism in mammals. We also use this opportunity to discuss the implication of these relations to the maintenance of systemic lipid homeostasis. .
The primary therapeutic target for diabetes management is the achievement of good glycemic control, of which glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) remains the standard clinical marker. However, glycemic variability (GV; the amplitude, frequency, and duration of glycemic fluctuations around mean blood glucose) is an emerging target for blood glucose control. A growing body of evidence supports GV as an independent risk factor for diabetes complications. Several techniques have been developed to assess and quantify intraday and interday GV. Additionally, GV can be influenced by several nutritional factors, including carbohydrate quality, quantity; and distribution; protein intake; and fiber intake. These factors have important implications for clinical nutrition practice and for optimizing blood glucose control for diabetes management. This review discusses the available evidence for GV as a marker of glycemic control and risk factor for diabetes complications. GV quantification techniques and the influence of nutritional considerations for diabetes management are also discussed.
Food safety is a top priority for the Government of Canada. The Conference Board of Canada has rated Canada's food safety system number one out of 17 OECD countries.
The Government has made significant investments in the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) resulting in some of the highest funding levels in history.
These investments are giving the CFIA the tools its needs to ensure a strong food safety system including enhancing food inspection activities, hiring more inspectors, and developing further food safety regulations and standards.
Through Economic Action Plan 2014, the Government has announced resources to support the hiring of 200 additional inspectors over three years and other staff to further strengthen Canada's food safety system.
Since 2008, the Government of Canada has invested $727M in various food safety initiatives. This investment is evidence that food safety is a priority.
For more information regarding the Government of Canada's commitment to food safety, please refer to the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Departmental Performance Report (see Section 2.1. Strategic Outcome: A Safe and Accessible Food Supply and Plant and Animal Resource Base).
This article summarizes current data and approaches to assess sodium intake in individuals and populations. A review of the literature on sodium excretion and intake estimation supports the continued use of 24-h urine collections for assessing population and individual sodium intake. Since 2000, 29 studies used urine biomarkers to estimate population sodium intake, primarily among adults. More than half used 24-h urine; the rest used a spot/casual, overnight, or 12-h specimen. Associations between individual sodium intake and health outcomes were investigated in 13 prospective cohort studies published since 2000. Only three included an indicator of long-term individual sodium intake, i.e., multiple 24-h urine specimens collected several days apart. Although not insurmountable, logistic challenges of 24-h urine collection remain a barrier for research on the relationship of sodium intake and chronic disease. Newer approaches, including modeling based on shorter collections, offer promise for estimating population sodium intake in some groups.
Variants of dopamine system genes such as the DRD4 and the SLC6A3 genes may be involved in food intake regulation because the dopaminergic system influences food reward. We investigated an association of polymorphisms in the DRD4 (exon 3 VNTR) and SLC6A3 (3’UTR VNTR, rs2550948, rs2652511 and rs1048953) genes with food intake and nutritional status in children. This prospective cohort study recruited 359 children at birth. Dietary data and nutritional status were collected at 1year, 3-4 years, and 7-8 years of age. The polymorphisms were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction based techniques. Food intake and nutritional status were compared among the different SNP genotypes. In the first year of life, DRD4.7R- children showed higher BMI Z-scores (P=0.019) than the DRD4.7R+ cohort. At 3 to 4years old, DRD4.7R- and SLC6A3.10R/10R children showed a higher intake of palatable foods (P=0.024) and a higher waist circumference (P=0.017). The rs1048953 SLC6A3 polymorphism was associated with average daily energy intake (P=0.003) at 3 to 4years and with a waist-to-height ratio of children at 7 to 8years (P=0.041). Carriers of high dopamine activity alleles of the VNTRs studied in DRD4 and SLC6A3 genes and carriers of T/T genotype of the variant rs1048953 SLC6A3 can present an increased risk for obesity related to overeating because high dopamine activity can increase the perceived incentive value of food reward.