Given the increase in the international trade of packaged frozen fishery products, this study used DNA barcoding to investigate the breaded hake and plaice species, sold in Italian markets. The results of this study generally matched the ingredient list on the food label. Only 6 of the 120 samples were non-compliant. Specifically, breaded merluccius samples match the species shown in the list of ingredients on the label. Of the “breaded plaice” samples, 4/14 contained Lepidopsetta polyxystra and 2/14 Merluccius gayi, thus failing to match the ingredient list on the label. Considering the European legislation indicates that the label must not mislead consumers, but international trade and the use of similar terms for different products makes it complicated when a product from one country is introduced into another in which the niche already exists, clear labeling is strongly recommended in order to ensure that consumers can make conscious choices.
For large scale cooking, it is desirable to implement continuous cooking. In addition to the usual advantages of continuous cooking (size of cooker, uniform cooked quality, possibility of process control), there is a possibility of increasing the thermal efficiency by preheating water against the hot cooked food leaving the cooker. In the present work, solid and liquid phase residence time distribution (RTD) have been measured in 120mm diameter and 1.6m long continuous cooker. Three levels of screw speed (1, 3 and 5rpm), two levels of solid flow rate (12and 24kg/h) and three levels of liquid flow rate (15, 25 and 35 lph) were selected. The solid phase was always found to move in a plug flow manner as the minimum Peclet number was found to be 81.5. This information was found to be useful for deciding the capacity of the continuous cooker. Thus, the time required for batch cooking was found to be equal to the minimum residence time in a continuous cooker at equivalent operating condition of temperature.
The trade-weighted index tracks prices on international markets of five major food commodity groups: cereals, meat, dairy products, vegetable oils and sugar.
In July, the dairy price index dropped 7.2 percent from the previous month, mainly due to lower import demand from China, the Middle East and North Africa amid abundant EU milk production which has resulted in good availability of dairy products for export.
The July vegetable oil price index was some 5.5 percent below its June level, reaching its lowest value since July 2009. The recent slide was primarily caused by a fall in international palm oil prices due to increased production in Southeast Asia combined with slower exports especially from Malaysia, and a further weakening of soy oil prices on ample supplies for export in South America and a favourable outlook for global supply in 2015/16.
The cereal price index rose by 2.0 percent from June, but was still 10.1 percent below July last year's level. For the second consecutive month, higher wheat and maize prices, in part due to unfavourable weather in North America and Europe, kept the cereal index rising, but rice prices continued to fall.
In July the meat price index remained nearly unchanged from the previous month. An increase in international prices of bovine meat offset a decline for pig meat and ovine meat, while prices for poultry remained stable.
The sugar price index rose by 2.5 percent from June 2015, largely due to less than ideal harvesting conditions in the main producing region of Brazil.
Insoluble calcium, expressed as a percentage of total calcium, for regular NaCl (•); low-NaCl (○), UF-fortified, low NaCl (○); and UF-fortified, high-hydrostatic pressure-treated, low-NaCl (Δ) Cheddar cheeses during 180 d of ripening at 7°C. Vertical bars represent SD. An asterisk () represents a significant (P < 0.05) difference from regular NaCl cheese at the indicated ripening time point.
Water-soluble nitrogen (a) and trichloroacetic acid-soluble nitrogen (b) as a percentage of total nitrogen values for regular NaCl (•); low-NaCl (○); UF-fortified, low-NaCl (○); and UF-fortified, high-hydrostatic pressure-treated, low-NaCl (Δ) Cheddar cheeses during 180 d of ripening at 7°C. Vertical bars represent SD. An asterisk () represents a significant (P < 0.05) difference from regular NaCl cheese at the indicated ripening time point.
Urea-PAGE electrophoretograms showing the breakdown of caseins in regular-NaCl (R); low-NaCl (L); UF-fortified, low-NaCl (L UF); and UF-fortified, high-hydrostatic pressure-treated, low-NaCl (L UF HHP) Cheddar cheeses at 1, 90, and 180 d of ripening at 7°C. Lanes with SC refer to sodium caseinate (standard).
Accumulation of β-CN (f1–189/192) fraction as a percentage of the intact β-CN level at 1 d (a), and level of intact αs1-CN as a percentage of its level at 1 d (b) calculated from area (pixel intensity) by the GelAnalyzer program (Lazarsoftware, Debrecen, Hungary) from the urea-polyacrylamide gels for regular-NaCl (•); low-NaCl (○); UF-fortified, low-NaCl (○); and UF-fortified, high-hydrostatic pressure-treated, low-NaCl (Δ) Cheddar cheeses at 1, 90, and 180 d of ripening at 7°C. Vertical bars represent SD. An asterisk () represents a significant (P < 0.05) difference from regular NaCl cheese at the indicated ripening time point.
Temperature of the crossover point of the storage and loss moduli graphs (or where LT = 1; a), and the maximum loss tangent values (b) for regular-NaCl (•); low-NaCl (○); UF-fortified, low-NaCl (○); and UF-fortified, high-hydrostatic pressure-treated, low-NaCl (Δ) Cheddar cheeses during 180 d of ripening at 7°C. Vertical bars represent SD.
Storage modulus (G′) as a function of temperature for low-NaCl cheese at 4 d (○), and 3 (Δ) and 6 mo (?). Cheese was heated from 5 to 85°C at 1°C/min. Vertical bars represent SD.
Hardness (N) from texture profile analysis testing (20% compression of cheese cylinders compared with original height) for regular-NaCl (•); low-NaCl (○); UF-fortified, low-NaCl (○); and UF-fortified, high-hydrostatic pressure-treated, low-NaCl (Δ) Cheddar cheeses during 6 mo of ripening at 7°C. Vertical bars represent SD. An asterisk () represents a significant (P < 0.05) difference from low-NaCl cheese at the indicated ripening time point.
Bites of information from a single study, and a few sensational headlines, can have tremendous impact on how consumers perceive health, nutrition and food safety. These are among the conclusions of a recent conversation we had with scientific experts.
An activist group’s “Dirty Dozen,” which identifies produce with the highest levels of pesticide residues, is a prime example of that impact. Identifying fruits and vegetables with the highest levels of pesticide residues could lead people to consume less of these nutritious foods based on the perceived risk, even if the actual risk is negligible.
Dr. Carl Winter, PhD, Extension Food Toxicologist and Vice Chair, Department of Food Science and Technology at the University of California, has identified common traps people fall into when interpreting these messages.
The first trap involves the notion that consumers often ignore how “the dose makes the poison.” It’s the amount of exposure to a chemical, he said, not its presence or absence that determines the potential for harm.
The second trap is that people assume government standards for the levels of substances in foods are only based on health. In fact, many are based on agricultural practices, manufacturing practices, detection capability or the levels at which these substances naturally occur.
The third trap is how regulatory standards for different foods are not automatically comparable. Sometimes health-based standards reflect food consumption estimates and may not be appropriate between foods with large differences in consumption (i.e. water vs. wine). For instance, a study found levels of arsenic in California wines to be 100 times higher than standards set for water. Comparing the standards and proclaiming a health risk is deceiving because consumption of water is estimated to be much higher than consumption of wine.
Dr. Kevin Folta, professor and chair of the Horticultural Sciences Department at the University of Florida, took the discussion further.
“Sound science sees a few articles steadily published over a longer period of time building upon research, he said. Media coverage is the opposite. Reporters will make a big splash about the initial discovery but don’t always continue to report on follow-up studies. The first big splash is all people remember. Contrary evidence and voices that soften the story are ignored, especially over time. Activists take advantage of this cycle,” he noted.
Folta also pointed out how the gold standard of science is getting research published. Most journals have a vigorous review process before new research is accepted as sound and published. However, “predatory” publishers will accept papers for publication for a fee that lack scientific rigor. Additionally, activist agendas can hijack publications that appear legitimate.
Printed words and pictures of Expo Milano 2015 came alive as I traveled to Italy July 1 as a member of the U.S. Presidential Delegation to attend the “U.S. National Day” activities July 2-4. It was truly an incredible opportunity for which I am most humbled and honored to have represented the IFIC Foundation.
The eight-member delegation was led by the U.S. Secretary of Agriculture, Tom Vilsack. The diversity and size of the delegation allowed for lively conversations about food, sustainability and global insights as we traveled by train to Milan, by car through the busy streets of Rome and Milan, on foot through the 95-degree weather at Expo Milano, or dined on the seven-course meal at the James Beard American Restaurant, prepared by the Italian sensation Chef Massimo Bottura (whose Osteria Francescana in 2015 was voted No. 2 in a noted annual ranking of “World’s 50 Best Restaurants.”)
Through the three event-packed days, it was evident the world has a keen interest in how we eat, farm and innovate for future generations. As of July 1, more than 1 million visitors had visited the USA Pavilion, “American Food 2.0.” Through the interactive exhibits, programming and videos, visitors have a firsthand opportunity to see how Americans are engaged in a wide range of efforts to feed the planet sustainability and nutritiously.
From the “food to table” movement and urban rooftop gardens, to university research and biotechnology, the Pavilion addresses all the tools available to increase yields, quality, quantity and nutrition while promoting sustainable growth and water reduction.
During our visit, Secretary Vilsack provided the keynote speech at a sustainability conference at the USA Pavilion. He assured the audience (and the world) that the United States takes sustainability seriously, as the USDA has a long history of conservation and research. He emphasized the importance of looking at sustainability through the three lenses of environment, economics and culture.
Secretary Vilsack pledged that all USDA research would be available globally as we work together to feed the world.
“Today it’s cool to be involved in food,” he told the audience. “Farmers successfully engaged in food production allow the rest of us to pursue other opportunities. Today is a tremendous opportunity for agriculture.”
From the 42-foot vertical gardens of the USA Pavilion, to the celebration of food and culture of the Italian Pavilion, to the focus on food waste in the UN Pavilion, creating a more food-secure, nourished world able to feed all inhabitants is highlighted uniquely throughout the 140 participating nations’ exhibitions.
On July 4, Expo Milano (along with the Italian media) turned its attention to the USA as we celebrated our freedom and our commitment to “feeding the world.” Spending the Fourth of July in another country celebrating along with fellow Americans and the Italian delegation made me incredibly patriotic—and convinced that we can provide the “energy for life” through embracing our diversity of opinions and expertise.
Aug. 31 – Sept. 2, 2015: Institute of Medicine’s “Workshop on Food Allergies: Global Burden, Causes, Treatment, Prevention, and Public Policy,” Keck Center (500 Fifth St. NW) in Washington, D.C. The workshop will explore current knowledge, research, and trends surrounding food allergies, discuss the unique needs and challenges of living with food allergies, and draw on international perspectives in measuring, preventing, and managing food allergies. There will be an opportunity for public comment.
Aug. 25, 2015: Institute of Medicine Webinar, “Resources for Evaluating Community-level Obesity Prevention Efforts.” Noon Eastern Time. To join, dial 877-278-2734 and use participant PIN number 714652. You can also join via the Web at http://ctb.glance.net?key=4082.
“What’s your health worth?” It may seem like a simple question, yet everyone values their health in different ways. Is good health worth a little extra time to you, or a little extra money? If someone offered to pay you to gain 20 pounds, how much would they have to give you before you took the offer?
The 2015 IFIC Foundation Food and Health Survey examines the question of how Americans value their health, delving into the trade-offs Americans make regarding health and nutrition on an everyday basis. These findings provide a wealth of new insights into Americans’ health and nutrition, including perceptions of their own health, an economic divide on food-purchasing decisions, where health and nutrition rank among competing priorities, and the guidance Americans’ want for dietary and health-related choices.
Self-perception vs. reality
Over the Survey’s 10-year history, Americans have consistently rated their health highly. This year is no exception, as 57% of Americans rate their own health as ‘very good’ or ‘excellent.’ Only 8% of Americans rate their health as ‘fair,’ and 1% as ‘poor.’
But do Americans’ perceptions of their health match up with reality? Results show that 55% of those who rated themselves in ‘very good’ or ‘excellent’ health are either overweight or obese.
Though perceived health status doesn’t appear to correlate with weight status, results show that individuals who see their health as ‘very good’ or ‘excellent’ report being treated for fewer chronic health conditions. In fact, 62% of those who rate their health as ‘very good’ or ‘excellent’ health do not report being treated for any of the conditions listed, including high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and diabetes, among others.
An economic divide
This year’s Survey results revealed many large divides between higher and lower income consumers, especially when it came to their purchasing behaviors. Higher-income consumers (above $75,000 per year) appear to be more focused on how foods are produced or sourced, and are significantly more likely than other consumers to buy foods because they were labeled as locally sourced, having no added hormones or steroids, or organic. The Survey results also show that higher-income consumers are more likely to report avoiding many specific food components and ingredients.
We also see an economic divide when it comes to perceptions of processed foods. Half of Americans (51%) acknowledge that foods would cost more if processed foods were hypothetically removed from the food supply, with 45% also saying food would become less convenient. While 43% say the impact of removing processed foods would be improved health or nutrition, higher-income consumers were more likely to answer that way. Lower-income Americans (at or below $35,000 per year), however, are most concerned about cost impacts if processed foods were removed from the food supply.
If you are joining the 20 million visiting Expo Milano 2015: Feeding the Planet, Energy for Life between May and October 2015, don’t forget to check out the USA Pavilion, along with all of the many other participating country pavilions.
The USA Pavilion’s theme is American Food 2.0: United to Feed the Planet. The Friends of the USA Pavilion note that “feeding ourselves engages a massive infrastructure, advanced technologies, and dynamic systems that touch on just about every aspect of the world we live in. Each step from farm to table reflects a set of values and connections that impacts our identities and shapes our future.”
The pavilion, designed by award-winning architect James Biber, underscores America’s rich agricultural history with an open design covered in a vertical farm that will be harvested daily. When you visit, you will be greeted by one of the 120 American college “student ambassadors” who are participating in a program organized by the University of Southern California.
IFIC Foundation Senior Vice President, Nutrition & Food Safety, appears on-screen at the Expo Milano USA Pavilion.
And, as noted in the USA Pavilion’s blog post from the opening day of the Expo, you also will see the IFIC Foundation’s very own Marianne Smith Edge, MS, RD, LD, FADA, on video as she addresses nutrition.
“Through interviews with key figures at the fore of farming, nutrition, cooking, policy, research and industry–the people working across the entire food system—America’s unique contribution to the global conversation at the heart of Expo comes to life.” – USA Pavilion blog
Click on each topic below to watch Marianne and other experts in short, themed interview and conversation videos playing on a loop in the USA Pavilion.
The research partnership principles listed below and publicly unveiled on June 16, 2015 provide a framework to establish and operate public-private partnerships for food and nutrition research.The principles resulted from a December 2014 working meeting that focused on public-private partnerships for research and reflect the consensus of participants, acting as individuals, who brought the widespread perspectives of a range of government agencies, professional societies, research organizations, industry, and academia.
These principles are focused on collaborative relationships involving partners from government, industry, and academia all coming together to address food and nutrition-related research challenges that will ultimately benefit the public health.The principles help organizations understand when it is appropriate to use a research public-private partnership, since public-private partnerships are not always the best approach to address certain areas of food and nutrition research.The principles also outline conditions needed to operate agreements among the parties interested in conducting and sponsoring such research.
The principles have been approved by the American Society for Nutrition, Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics, Institute of Food Technologists, International Association for Food Protection, and International Life Sciences Institute North America, collectively representing approximately 97,000 scientists.
The research partnership principles are publicly available for all interested parties to reference and use.The intention is to promote these principles as a common way to spur development of credible and transparent public-private partnerships for the public good.
Kidney disease is the 5th leading cause of death for African-American women (Women’s Health USA, 2013). Excessive amounts of sodium consumed can increase blood pressure, edema and difficulty breathing.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of situational diet self-efficacy on the adherence to a low sodium diet by African-American women on hemodialysis.
A cross sectional survey was implemented for African-American women on hemodialysis. The Situational Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale was used to assess dietary self-efficacy based upon 25 statements that provides combinations of feelings, moods and the level of hunger. A number from 0 to 100 was placed next to the statements with 0 indicating not at all confident and 100 indicating completely confident.
There were 29 subjects’ greater than18 years of age and on hemodialysis. All participants were from 1 hemodialysis facility in northeastern Ohio. The subjects were recruited at their hemodialysis facility to complete the Situational Dieting Self-Efficacy Scale.
The answers to each question were placed in an SPSS version 21 data file. Cronbach Alpha and Descriptive Statistical tests were run.
The Cronbach Alpha was .957. The descriptive statistics ranged from 57.21-79.10.
The Situational Diet Self-Efficacy Scale was reliable. The findings shown participants had a higher adherence to the low sodium diet when they were relaxed and mildly hungry during meal time.
In 2011, MyPlate was introduced as a simple visual example of a healthy meal, based on the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA). The purpose of this study is to determine current consumer awareness and usage of the MyPlate message.
A cross-sectional interview format survey using descriptive statistics was used to summarize participant awareness, translation and recognition, along with possible and actual use of either the MyPlate or the picture example.
Data were collected at three unrelated food stores over a three-day period.
Ninety (90) adult participants with diverse education and income levels completed an 11-question interview.
Fifty-two percent (52%) of participants recognized the MyPlate symbol with 91% translating the symbol to a sample picture of real food and 92% agreeing the sample picture represented a healthy, balanced meal. Further, 90% and 99%, respectively, agreed the sample picture could be used as a guide for purchasing food and preparing meals. Of those familiar with MyPlate, 36% and 38%, respectively, actually use the MyPlate as a guide when purchasing and preparing meals.
Although MyPlate recognition appears to have increased since 2011, nearly half of participants did not recognize the MyPlate symbol. The survey indicates that consumers agree with the intended use of MyPlate, but many are still not using it to purchase and prepare healthier foods. There is a need to bridge the gap between awareness and action.
Poor weight management, inadequate dietary calcium, and excessive caffeine intake is a growing concern among young adults. This study assessed dietary calcium, caffeine intake and body mass index (BMI) on bone mineral density (BMD) of females freshmen.
Participants included freshmen females (18-21 years) from a mid-western university, free from smoking or dietary supplement use. Two validated and reliable food frequency questionnaires assessed calcium and caffeine consumption. BMD was measured using quantitative ultrasound; Omnipath ® axial transmission technology (Sunlight Omnisense 7000S/8000S) where T-scores of the distal radius were collected. BMIs were calculated using anthropometrics (i.e. height and weight). All variables were statically analyzed using SPSS 20.0.
From a pool of 200 participants, 191 successfully completed the study. A majority (95%; n= 181) were Caucasians, reflective of the university’s student population. Only 12% (n=23) exhibited excellent dietary calcium intakes indicative of ≥ 3 servings/day with 64% having a mean intake of 68 mg/day of caffeine. A one-way analysis of variance revealed there was a significant negative relationship between BMI and BMD (t=5.39, p<0.001), indicating those with higher BMI had lower BMD. No significant relationship existed between dietary calcium and caffeine intake on BMD.
Although dietary calcium and caffeine intake did not affect BMD of young women, BMD was lower among individuals with higher BMI. Given that college students are close to reaching the critical period in development of peak bone mass, continued innovative educational strategies to increase consumption of dietary calcium among freshmen college females is warranted.
memory is free for handling demanding mental tasks, e.g., decision-making and problem-solving) on weight-related behaviors of young adults enrolled in college.
Exposure to temporary (e.g. anxiety) and/or longstanding (e.g. discrimination, poverty) stressors diminishes working memory availability and, thus, increases cognitive load. High cognitive load may contribute to health disparities because high cognitive loads may hinder dietary decision-making and lead to increasing BMIs. Eating behaviors (emotional, restraint, externally-cued eating); mealtime practices [i.e. self-instruction, self-regulation], dietary intake (i.e. fruits/vegetables, alcohol, and sweetened beverages), stress level, exercise level, BMI, and waist circumference of high (n=593) and low cognitive load (n=425) young adults enrolled in college were compared. Cognitive load category assignment was based on self-reported stress level, time pressure/income needs, nativity, and race/ethnicity (indicator of discrimination). High cognitive load young adults were significantly (P<0.05) more likely to: be female, older, upper classmen; eat more fruits/vegetables; and report more emotional restraint, externally-cued eating and less self-regulation. Examination by gender revealed high cognitive load females reported more restraint, emotional, and externally-cued eating and lower self-regulation than low cognitive load females. High cognitive load males reported higher emotional and externally-cued eating and lower self-regulation than low cognitive load males. Although both males and females with high cognitive load scores had higher BMIs, waist circumferences, and drank more alcohol than their low cognitive load counterparts, these differences were not significant. However, the trend toward higher BMIs may indicate a greater obesity risk over time for those with high cognitive loads. Study findings suggest cognitive load should be considered when designing and evaluating obesity prevention and treatment interventions and that stress-reduction strategies may be key components for preventing body fat accretion over time.
Loss of food preparation and storage resources (cooking fuel, refrigeration/freezing, potable water) that often accompany emergency disasters may impact household food supply adequacy. Thorough examination of household food supplies in low-income, minority households available during an emergency have not been reported. This study 1) examined household food supplies of low-income, minority households and 2) projected changes in accessibility of food supplies with losses of water and/or fuel for cooking and refrigeration/freezing. Food supplies in low-income African-American (n=30) and Oaxacan-American (n=30) households were systematically inventoried and analyzed for nutrient content and food-preparation and storage resource requirements. Total days household food supplies would provide 100% of the Daily Value (DV) for calories for each adult equivalent was calculated and available nutrient indices (ANI) were determined. Changes in ANI with loss of resources was projected. Total days at 100% of calorie DV was 17.14+13.27SD and 16.74+14.02SD days in Oaxacan-American and African-American households, respectively. Food supply ANIs within Oaxacan-American households was 1.07+0.41SD and 0.74+0.22SD in African-American households. After 5 days of consuming 100% of the DV for calories from household food supply, 63% of Oaxacan-American and 67% of African-American households that lost water, cooking fuel, and refrigeration/freezing would have fully exhausted their food supplies. While there is great variation in food supply content among households, loss of food preparation and storage resources that typically accompanies emergency disasters would lead to emergency-induced food insecurity in most of these households within 5 days. Future food relief programs should consider proactively supporting emergency household food supplies.
High cholesterol levels are of concern because they have been linked with heart disease, stroke, bile imbalance, leading to gallstones, and blood flow interferences. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect that waffle batter content (egg versus banana puree) has on physical and sensory characteristics and acceptability of waffles.
After IRB approval, twenty college-aged students, 19 and older, were recruited to test two different samples. The control waffle recipe and the second was the same waffle recipe with banana puree substituted for eggs. Samples were tested subjectively using a Hedonic scale (1-9) and triangle test. Objective testing included the cook time, line spread test, volumeter, vernier calipers, Nutritionist Pro analysis and the TA.XT Plus texture analyzer. Statistical tests included mean, median, mode and t - tests with an alpha value of 0.05.
Subjective testing revealed little difference in the acceptability of the two waffles. Nutritional analysis using the Nutritionist Pro system showed that that the waffle made with banana was lower in cholesterol and lower in fat. Objective testing revealed that the banana waffle had batter that was less viscous, larger in volume, firmer, and did not rise as high as the control.
This research shows that the egg content of waffles can be successfully be replaced with banana puree. The effects of such alterations has little to no effect on overall palatability or likeability of the waffle, but it would lower the cholesterol content of the waffle and be more affordable.
The USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, Release 27 (SR) includes 259 ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. Seven (3%) of these represent private-label (store) brands. This study’s objective was to assess the need for inclusion of private-label brands of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals in SR based on market share and nutrient comparisons with major national brand cereals. Nielsen 2012 sales data were used to determine market share of private-label and national brands of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals from the top 80% of the retail market. The nutrient content of 9 private-label products with over five million total unit sales was compared to national brand counterparts using online company labels. Results showed 15% of the 1.8 billion ready-to-eat cereal market was private label. Of the 185 cereals with 80% of units sold, nearly one-fourth (42) were private-label. All top 9 cereals had equal or <10% difference in energy and total carbohydrate values, comparing private-label to national brand labels, but differences >20% existed for many other nutrients and cereals. Five private-label products had 45-150% and 126-207% greater levels of vitamins A and C, respectively, than similar national brands. National brand corn flakes had greater levels (714 vs 571 mg/100 g) whereas national brand toasted oats had lower levels (500 vs 677 mg/100 g) of sodium compared to private-label. Market share and disparities in nutrient content between private-label and national brands support the inclusion of private-label ready-to-eat cereals in SR, thus providing dietitians and consumer’s access to more comprehensive food composition data.
There has been a dramatic increase over the past two decades in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in the United States. Persons with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) have higher incidences of overweight and obesity than the general population, and are currently under-served in health promotion programs. The purpose of the study, using a triangulation design, was to investigate if implementation of an appropriately planned nutrition program administered to young adults with ID/DD resulted in changes in food choices and specific nutrients that may be influential in preventing overweight and obesity, and to answer the research question: What educational strategies in providing nutrition education are most effective in meeting the social, cognitive, and dietary needs of persons with ID/DD? A two- part Home Food Behavior Questionnaire was used to assess the nutritional needs of participants, and to evaluate program reception appropriateness. Weekly group discussions were held with parents/caregivers of participants, followed by nutrition lessons for participants during a 6-week period. Analysis of the data was used in developing educational strategies that best fit the needs of the ID/DD population. Three-day food logs were collected pre-study and post-intervention, and analyzed using the National Cancer Institute’s ASA24 nutrient analysis program, measuring nutrient changes. Nutrients analyzed included fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, sugar, fiber, and Vitamins, A, C, and D. Qualitative data indicated sessions were appropriately planned and well received. Changes were seen in nutrient intake, but were insignificant, indicating the need for further research in this area.
Park and recreation agencies (PRAs) are the health/wellness leaders in their communities. PRAs provide a safe place for children during summers, provide millions of nutritious meals, and teach children about eating healthily.
Commit to Health (C2H) interventions help PRAs provide nutritious meals, and implement nutrition standards and nutrition education. During the summer of 2014, C2H operated in 557 locations (∼257,000 children grades K-6). An evaluation of impact included pre-June and post-August surveys of a nationwide representative sample including 426 children, 92 staff, and 116 parents.
Results show significant improvements in nutrition knowledge and eating behaviors. Children: statistically significant improvements in correct responses regarding nutrition knowledge topics: main antioxidants/vitamins found in fruits/vegetables (14.8% to 34.0%, McNemar Test; p=0.000), which type of cereal is best (57.7% to 72.3%; p=0.000), type of food that is a protein (64.1% to 72.5%,; p=0.000), foods with most fiber (43.9% to 65.3%; p=0.000), organ that regulates sugar (39.7% to 51.9%; p=0.002). Child eating behavior improvement: increases in fruits (z-2.801; p=0.005), bell peppers (z-2.483; p=0.013), spinach, and low-fat dairy; decrease in consumption of sugary beverages. Parents: increases in consumption vegetables (z-score -2.22; p=0.026), bell peppers (z-2.166; p=0.030), spinach (z-3.213; p=0.001), summer squash (z-2.867; p=0.004), and fish (z-2.553; p=0.011). Smaller increases in consumption of tropical fruits, stone fruits, and low-fat dairy. Staff reported similar increase in consumption of bell peppers, spinach, tropical fruits, stone fruits, summer squash, and lean proteins.
C2H shows child and adult healthy eating behaviors can be improved via summer camp programming.
Undergoing treatment for colorectal cancers creates complications that negatively affect nutritional status. The purpose of this study was to identify demographic and treatment variables related to nutrition-related complications in patients with colon and/or rectal cancers in patients in an outpatient oncology clinic. The researcher administered a survey to determine prevalence of nausea, vomiting, constipation, diarrhea, taste changes, loss of appetite within the last two weeks, and the impact of these symptoms on appetite (“not at all” to “a lot”). In addition, demographic data, BMI, biochemical values, type of cancer, and chemotherapy regimen were recorded from the patient’s medical record. Chi-squared analysis was used to determine the difference in the prevalence of negative gastrointestinal symptoms and gender, race, type of cancer and chemotherapy regimen. ANOVA was used to evaluate mean differences in age, BMI, and months of treatment based on the nutrition-related complications reported. Of the 17 participants, 64.7% were male, and 94.1% were Caucasian. Colon cancer was reported in 70.6% of the participants, and four chemotherapy agents were identified. Seventy-one percent of those experiencing taste changes reported decreases in intake. The use of the chemotherapy agent bevacizumab was found to be significantly related to the positive incidence of diarrhea (X2 (6, N = 17) = 18.46, p < 0.005). No other significant differences were noted. Due to the small sample size results are limited. However, a larger sample size may allow future researchers to identify and proactively intervene in order to maintain nutrition status in patients with colorectal cancers.
Because over 40% of Hispanic children are overweight, placing them at health risk, effective weight management support for these children and their families is crucial. Multi-faceted community-based family interventions offer a potential solution.
FIT for Health piloted a 10 week intervention for control families who received a health education program and for experimental families who received a weight management program integrating behavioral, motivation, and family skills. This report investigated whether the experimental children improved the quality of their diets more so than the control children from pre to post-intervention. Quality of diet was measured by calculation of Healthy Eat Index (HEI) scores from 3 pre and 3 post multiple-pass 24 hour dietary recalls obtained by telephone with the children.
The 20 children who completed the 6 recalls included 10 females and 10 males aged 10 to 17 years (mean=13 years). BMI percentiles improved from 94.37±6.96 to 93.74±7.48 (p=0.11) without a significant difference between control and experimental groups (p=0.66). The mean HEI for the control group decreased from 63.21±5.82 to 60.13±8.56, while it increased from 62.71±11.78 to 67.26±8.68 for the intervention group (p=0.01 using General Linear Model with Repeated Measures).
In a 10 week weight management program for Hispanic children and their families, the improvement in quality of diet (as measured by HEI) was significantly greater among the children in the behaviorally focused program compared to the controls in an education based program.
Registered Dietitian Nutritionists (RDNs) and students complete valuable research and program evaluations but may lack the knowledge to submit their results to meetings. This was a joint initiative of the Academy’s Center for Professional Development (CPD) and Dietetics Practice Based Research Network (DPBRN) to increase the number and quality of abstract submissions for FNCE 2015. CPD and DPBRN staff and volunteers developed and presented a webinar describing the abstract submission and evaluation process, and tips for success including recommendations for effectively communicating outcomes and practice applications. Webinar participants evaluated the program using an online survey which allowed for the assessment of knowledge changes and will inform future webinar improvement. The number of submitted FNCE abstracts and mean scores will be compared from 2014 to 2015. 98 individuals attended the webinar; 57 responded to the evaluation survey. The percent of respondents with each pre/post knowledge ratings (respectively) were beginner 26.3 vs. 3.5%, intermediate 40.4 vs. 42.1%, advanced 17.5 vs. 40.3%, and expert 7.0 vs. 12.2%; 57% of respondents were “very likely” to apply information from the webinar. Written comments indicated that the webinar was helpful to participants. Results of the year to year quality comparison are ongoing, but will be available prior to FNCE. The webinar has the potential to increase the number of RDNs and students who successfully submit abstracts to FNCE. Future collaborative webinars could describe the poster-creation process or re-submission tips for rejected abstracts. Webinars are a cost-effective way to disseminate information on research and other professional skills.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (AND) and the American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) proposed characteristics for malnutrition. Patients meeting two or more criteria (change in oral intake and weight, muscle/fat wasting, fluid accumulation, and decreased handgrip strength) are deemed malnourished; however, these characteristics have not yet been validated. Subjective Global Assessment (SGA), a validated tool, identifies malnutrition using similar criteria (change in intake, weight, and functional status, presence of gastrointestinal symptoms, muscle/fat wasting and presence of edema); however, clinicians may diagnose malnutrition regardless of number of criteria met. The purpose of this quality improvement project was to compare characteristics of malnourished patients using the AND/ASPEN guidelines and SGA. Subjects admitted over two 2-month time periods (n=1009) were assessed using SGA and the AND/ASPEN guidelines. Descriptive statistics (counts and percentages) were used to describe the sample. In patients deemed malnourished by SGA but not by AND/ASPEN guidelines (n=32), GI symptoms were the most frequently present criteria (50% of patients). Ninety-five percent of patients found to be malnourished using AND/ASPEN guidelines but not by SGA (n=176), had inadequate handgrip strength as determined by AND standards while only 23% of these patients had decreased functional status according to SGA. Current AND/ASPEN handgrip guidelines may not accurately assess functional status of hospitalized patients. An ideal tool to determine malnutrition would use measures of functional status with high specificity and include presence of GI symptoms. Further research is needed to determine the most sensitive and specific tool to identify malnutrition.
Snacks such as potato chips, cookies, and cakes are tasty and widely available, but often lack fiber and other nutrients due to processing methods. Pistachios are high in complex carbohydrates, unsaturated fats, and fiber, suggesting pistachios are a healthy snack. The objectives of this study were to determine if female university students improve their intake of micro- and macronutrients and reduce their consumption of high carbohydrate snacks when pistachios are added to their diet. Thirty female university students (18-40 yo) were recruited to consume 20 percent of their calories as pistachios. Participants were randomly assigned to either the pistachio (P) treatment or the no-pistachio (NP) treatment for 12 weeks with a 15-week washout period, and then switched treatments for 12 weeks. Nine food and activity logs were completed each treatment, and data was entered into National Data System for Research software (University of Minnesota, 2012). During the P-treatment there was a significant (P<0.05) dietary increase in monounsaturated fatty acids, copper, manganese, gamma tocopherol, total vitamin A activity, vitamins E, B3, B6, dietary folate, synthetic folate, niacin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and the polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. In the NP-treatment, total starch, glycemic index, glycemic load, betaine, selenium, vitamin D, and alpha tocopherol increased significantly. The higher glycemic index, glycemic load, and levels of starch in the NP-treatment indicated that the pistachios replaced high carbohydrate foods. Therefore, 20% Kcal pistachio intake improves diet quality by increasing intakes of unsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and by reducing high carbohydrate intake.
Mathematics is a key component of the foundational knowledge needed to meet the competency standards of a successful food and nutrition professional. A researcher developed questionnaire was administered to senior-level nutrition science students (N=34) assessing mathematics operations related to food and nutrition science. Students answered 20 multiple choice questions selected from widely utilized academic textbooks in the field of nutrition science under the categories of percentages, food labels, formulas, graphs, and cost-control. At least 80% of students correctly answered questions pertaining to percentages, food labels, and graphs. One question pertaining to formulas presented the students with difficulty and less than 80% of students answered questions within the cost-control section correctly. Low performance in the areas of cost-control and formulas may be a result of student inability to apply mathematics knowledge to these concepts. Lack of necessary content covered later in Medical Nutrition Therapy II explains low performance on the formula question. Individuals that answered the question correctly likely used deductive reasoning or previously acquired knowledge of the conversion factors to select the correct answer. Difficulty with cost-control items can be explained by the newness of applying mathematics operations relating to cost-control, and practice is essential to improve student understanding and performance. Regular assessment of mathematics knowledge and skills is important for undergraduate nutrition science programs. Mathematics skills are often assumed and/or expected of students. Placing more emphasis on mathematics practice in the undergraduate nutrition science curriculum can serve to fine tune mathematics application skills and improve subsequent workplace performance.
Dietary sodium intake as a cause of hypertension remains controversial. We examined the impact of diet on blood pressure (BP) in college-aged adults, hypothesizing that increased dietary sodium intake would correlate with elevations in BP.
In a cross-sectional study, students completed validated questionnaires for diet (Rate-Your-Plate or RYP), exercise, perceived stress and sleep. Students also had measures of blood pressure and body mass index (BMI). Students with BP≤120/80 (normotensive) were compared to those with BP>120/80 but less than 140/90 (pre-hypertensive) using t-test or chi-square as appropriate. The Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons required p<0.0031 to reach statistical significance.
Of 180 students, ten with hypertension were excluded from analysis. Students were taking no vasoactive medications. Normotensives (n=84) were similar to pre-hypertensives (n=86) for mean age±SD (19.5±1.2 vs 20.1±2.2 years, p=0.03), race (p=0.58), exercise (p=0.27), perceived stress (p=0.05), and sleep time (p=0.22). Normotensives were mostly women (94% vs 59% women, p<0.0001) and had lower BMI (23.0 vs 24.8 kg/m2, p=0.003). Groups were similar for six RYP factors suggesting high dietary salt: eating out (p=0.014), cold cuts/breakfast meats (p=0.43), cheese (p=0.17), added salt (p=0.07), canned food/packaged meals (p=0.79) and salty snacks (p=0.78). Normotensives had lower fat intake by four RYP factors indicating high fat intake: red meat frequency, p=0.0002; red meat choices, p=0.004; poultry with skin, p=0.008; dressing choices, p=0.003.
Independent of exercise, stress and sleep, high fat dietary choices but not dietary sodium were significantly associated with pre-hypertension.
To describe the relationship between frequency of fish/seafood consumption, dietary intake of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and red blood cell EPA and DHA (% of total fatty acids), henceforth referred to as the Omega-3 Index.
A volunteer sample of deployed U.S. military personnel was recruited from two locations in Iraq in 2010. Individuals consuming omega-3 supplements were excluded. A 10-item semi-quantitative FFQ was used to measure EPA and DHA intake from three primary food sources including: 1) fish/seafood, 2) poultry, and 3) eggs. Finger stick blood samples were collected on antioxidant treated cards and analyzed by gas chromatography. Pearson correlation coefficients and Student’s independent t-tests were used to characterize the relationship between dietary intake and Omega-3 Index.
Eighty military personnel (74 men and 6 women) provided blood samples and completed the FFQ. The mean Omega-3 Index was 3.5 ± 0.7%, ranging from 1.7 to 5.7%. The mean intake of EPA and DHA was 173 mg ± 207mg, ranging from 0 to 974 mg. The Omega-3 Index was positively correlated with dietary intake of EPA and DHA (r = .36; P = 0.001). Fifty-eight participants (73%) reported eating fish/seafood less than twice per week. Compared to those who consumed fish more frequently (4.0 ± 0.8%), the military personnel who consumed fish/seafood less than twice per week (3.3 ± 0.6%) had a lower Omega-3 Index, P = 0.001.
Fish/seafood consumption and intake of EPA and DHA were positively associated with the Omega-3 Index.
After this presentation, attendees should be able to list two strategies that improved healthy eating behaviors and parental child feeding practices through the What’s Cooking program.
Providing access to nutritious foods is crucial for low-income populations, but increasing nutrition-related skills and attitudes such as food preparation, feeding practices, and positive perceptions around healthy foods to establish sustainable behavior change are also paramount for the development of healthy lifestyles and disease prevention. This qualitative study was designed to evaluate the What’s Cooking pilot program. A total of 15 parents/guardians were recruited from two Head Start schools through flyers, text messages, and emails. Two focus group sessions were audio-recorded to obtain information related to the program implementation and perceived outcomes and behavior change. Recordings of the sessions were transcribed and analyzed using constant comparative analysis (NVIVO, 2014). Themes included preparation of healthy foods, meals eaten at the table, children’s asking behavior for healthy foods, participant cooking and label reading skills, and engagement and interest of children in the cooking process. The qualitative analysis provided foundational information for the development of a conceptual framework for other nutrition program providers to understand the potential factors and pathways to increase healthy cooking and feeding practices in low-income populations, such as Head Start families. The study participants highly valued the What’s Cooking instructor’s culinary skills, application-focused approach, nutritional knowledge, and cultural sensitivity to connect with the low-income participants. In conclusion, the What’s Cooking program increased the implementation of sustainable food practices and healthy nutrition behaviors in Head Start families. Having highly qualified instructors will contribute to successful behavior change in participants and the success of nutrition programs like What’s Cooking.
Assessment of accurate dietary intake in free living individuals using dietary logs can be difficult. This project was conceived to evaluate if the Narrative ClipTM, a life-logging wearable camera, could provide sufficient photographic evidence to accurately assess dietary intake of a free living individual. The camera takes a photograph every 30 seconds. Initial assessment determined that photographic quality was sufficient for assessment of food intake but the angle of the photographic field needed to be modified to capture food items in hand or on a plate. Using a 3-D printer, engineering technology students in a rapid prototyping course, designed a plastic (ABS) platform that will hold the camera in an appropriate visual plane for assessment of food intake. The neck was selected as the best location for placement of the camera assembly and is attached as a choker using a ribbon. Following initial trials, the prototype platform is being re-designed with a steeper inclination angle to better capture images of food selection and consumption. Assessment of food intake is in two phases. In phase 1, nutrition graduate students wear the camera assembly for two days, while also accurately logging their nutrient intake. A different team of RD’s will assess dietary intake based on photographic imagery and correlate prediction accuracy with the dietary log. In phase 2, non-nutrition graduate students will wear the camera assembly for 2 days. After 2 days, participants will provide a 48-hr dietary recall. Correlation between photographic assessed dietary intake and 48-hr dietary recall will be performed.
The eating habits of international post-secondary students who are food insecure are poorly understood, and it is unknown how inadequate nutrition influences their education. Our purpose was to understand (1) how international students’ eating habits have changed while attending university in Canada and (2) the degree to which food insecurity has influenced students’ perceived academic performance.
In 2013-14, semi-structured individual interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of international post-secondary students who were considered food insecure based on the Household Food Security Survey Module. Students were recruited from the Campus Food Bank (CFB) at the University of Alberta (Edmonton, Canada). The CFB provides students in need with free food every two weeks. Transcripts were analyzed using content analysis by identifying, coding, and categorizing the main patterns in the data.
Eleven students (n=8 women, n=3 men) participated in the study. Since arriving in Canada to attend university, participants reported eating more processed food, not eating balanced meals, skipping breakfast, and eating less perishable food. Participants identified stress and anxiety related to a lack of money as distractions that reduced their ability to concentrate on their studies, which in turn negatively impacted their academic performance.
International post-secondary students reported sub-optimal eating habits as a result of their food insecurity. Their lack of money had a negative impact on their mental well-being, and consequently, on their academic performance. Future studies should explore the impact of food insecurity on dietary acculturation and health outcomes among international post-secondary students in Canada.