Background: Growing evidence suggests that dairy products may have beneficial cardiometabolic effects. The current guidelines, however, limit the intake of full-fat dairy products.
Objective: We investigated the association of dairy consumption, types of dairy products, and dairy fat content with metabolic syndrome (MetSyn).
Methods: We analyzed baseline data of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil), a multicenter cohort study of 15,105 adults aged 35–74 y. We excluded participants with known diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, or other chronic diseases, and those who had extreme values of energy intake, leaving 9835 for analysis. Dairy consumption was assessed by a food-frequency questionnaire. We computed servings per day for total and subgroups of dairy intake. We computed a metabolic risk score (MetScore) as the mean z score of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, HDL cholesterol (negative z score), fasting triglycerides, and fasting glucose. We performed multivariable linear regression to test the association of servings per day of dairy products with MetScore.
Results: In analyses that adjusted for demographics, menopausal status, family history of diabetes, dietary intake, nondietary lifestyle factors, and body mass index, we observed a graded inverse association for MetScore with total dairy (−0.044 ± 0.01, P = 0.009 for each additional dairy servings per day) and full-fat dairy (−0.126 ± 0.03, P < 0.001) but not with low-fat dairy intake. Associations were no longer present after additional adjustments for dairy-derived saturated fatty acids.
Abstract. Background: Green tea consumption has been associated with favorable changes in body weight and obesity-related hormones, although it is not known whether these changes result from green tea polyphenols or caffeine. Objective: We examined the impact of decaffeinated green tea extract (GTE) containing 843 mg of (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on anthropometric variables, obesity-associated hormones, and glucose homeostasis. Methods: The Minnesota Green Tea Trial was a 12-mo randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of 937 healthy postmenopausal women assigned to either decaffeinated GTE (1315 mg total catechins/d) or a placebo, stratified by catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) genotype. This study was conducted in a subset of 237 overweight and obese participants [body mass index (BMI) ≥25 kg/m2].
Results: No changes in energy intake, body weight, BMI, or waist circumference (WC) were observed over 12 mo in women taking GTE (n = 117) or placebo (n = 120). No differences were seen in circulating leptin, ghrelin, adiponectin, or glucose concentrations at month 12. Participants randomly assigned to GTE with baseline insulin ≥10 μIU/mL (n = 23) had a decrease in fasting serum insulin from baseline to month 12 (−1.43 ± 0.59 μIU/mL), whereas those randomly assigned to placebo with baseline insulin ≥10 μIU/mL (n = 19) had an increase in insulin over 12 mo (0.55 ± 0.64 μIU/mL, P < 0.01). Participants with the homozygous high-activity (G/G) form of COMT had significantly lower adiponectin (5.97 ± 0.50 compared with 7.58 ± 0.53 μg/mL, P = 0.03) and greater insulin concentrations (7.63 ± 0.53 compared with 6.18 ± 0.36 μIU/mL, P = 0.02) at month 12 compared with those with the low-activity (A/A) genotype, regardless of treatment group.
Conclusions: Decaffeinated GTE was not associated with reductions in body weight, BMI, or WC and did not alter energy intake or mean hormone concentrations in healthy postmenopausal women over 12 mo. GTE decreased fasting insulin concentrations in those with elevated baseline fasting concentrations. The high-activity form of the COMT enzyme may be associated with elevations in insulin and a reduction in adiponectin concentrations over time. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00917735. .
Background: The consumption of dietary antioxidants is considered to be a good strategy against photo-aging. However, the results of previous clinical trials that investigated the effects of oral consumption of high-flavanol cocoa products on skin photo-aging have been contradictory.
Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether high-flavanol cocoa supplementation would improve the moderately photo-aged facial skin of female participants, by assessing skin wrinkles and elasticity.
Methods: We performed a 24-wk, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the effects of oral supplementation of cocoa flavanols on cutaneous photo-aging. All participants were moderately photo-aged Korean women with visible facial wrinkles (age range: 43–86 y). Participants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo beverage or cocoa beverage that contained 320 mg total cocoa flavanols/d. We measured wrinkles, skin elasticity, and hydration at baseline and at 12 and 24 wk. The primary endpoint was the mean percentage change in the average roughness value (Rz) at 24 wk.
Results: At 24 wk, the mean percentage change in Rz (primary endpoint) was significantly lower in the cocoa group than in the placebo group (–8.7 percentage points; 95% CI: –16.1, –1.3 percentage points; P = 0.023). The mean percentage changes in gross elasticity, as determined by a cutometer, also differed between the groups at 12 wk (9.1 percentage points; 95% CI: 1.5, 16.7 percentage points; P = 0.020) and 24 wk (8.6 percentage points; 95% CI: 1.0, 16.2 percentage points; P = 0.027). However, there were no significant differences in skin hydration and barrier integrity between the 2 groups.
Conclusions: In moderately photo-aged women, regular cocoa flavanol consumption had positive effects on facial wrinkles and elasticity. Cocoa flavanol supplementation may contribute to the prevention of the progression of photo-aging. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02060097. .
Background: Inadequate complementary feeding partially explains micronutrient deficiencies in the first 2 y of life. To prevent malnutrition, the Mexican government implemented the Programa de Apoyo Alimentario (PAL), which transferred either food baskets containing micronutrient-fortified milk and animal food products or cash to beneficiary families along with educational sessions.
Objective: This study evaluated the impact of PAL on 2 indicators of complementary feeding: minimum dietary diversity and consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods in children aged 6–23 mo.
Methods: A secondary analysis of the original PAL evaluation design was conducted through a randomized community trial implemented with 3 intervention groups (food basket with education, food basket without education, and cash transfer with education) and a control. The impact of PAL after 14 mo of exposure was estimated in 2 cross-sectional groups of children aged 6–23 mo at baseline and at follow-up in a panel of 145 communities by using difference-in-difference models. Only children who lived in households and communities that were similar between treatment groups at baseline were included in the analysis. These children were identified by using a propensity score.
Results: Of the 3 intervention groups, when compared with the control, only the food basket without education group component increased the consumption of iron-rich or iron-fortified foods by 31.2 percentage points (PP) (P < 0.01) and the prevalence of minimum dietary diversity by 21.6 PP (P < 0.01).
Conclusion: These findings suggest that in order to improve dietary quality in children, food baskets that include fortified complementary foods may be more effective than cash transfers. The fact that the 2 food basket groups differed in the observed impact does not allow for more convincing conclusions to be made about the education component of the program. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01304888.
Background: Key areas of research on the preservation of lean tissue mass (LTM) during aging are determinations of the protein requirement and optimal protein intake at meals.
Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of protein supplementation at breakfast and lunch for 24 wk beyond habitual intakes on whole-body LTM in healthy adults aged 50–70 y.
Methods: In a single-blinded, randomized, controlled design, 60 healthy older men and women (aged 61 ± 5 y) with a body mass index (in kg/m2) of 25.8 ± 3.6 consumed either 0.165 g/kg body mass of a milk-based protein matrix (PRO) or an isoenergetic, nonnitrogenous maltodextrin control (CON) at breakfast and midday meals, the lower protein–containing meals of the day, for 24 wk. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry was used to measure the change in LTM.
Results: After the intervention, protein intake in the PRO group increased from 0.23 ± 0.1 to 0.40 ± 0.1 g/kg for breakfast and from 0.31 ± 0.2 to 0.47 ± 2 g/kg for the midday meal. In response, LTM increased by 0.45 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.83) kg in the PRO group compared with a decrease of 0.16 (95% CI: −0.49, 0.17) kg in the CON group (P = 0.006). Appendicular LTM accounted for the majority of the difference in LTM, increasing by 0.27 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.48) kg in the PRO group compared with no change in the CON group (P = 0.002).
Conclusions: Protein supplementation at breakfast and lunch for 24 wk in healthy older adults resulted in a positive (+0.6 kg) difference in LTM compared with an isoenergetic, nonnitrogenous maltodextrin control. These observations suggest that an optimized and balanced distribution of meal protein intakes could be beneficial in the preservation of lean tissue mass in the elderly. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02529124. .
In this paper the awareness and attitudes towards traceability are examined in the food supply chain (FSC) within UK Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs). The objective of this paper is to test some propositions found in the literature, and understand whether or not SMEs in the UK are aware of the main objectives of traceability and what importance is given in term of relevance and intention to invest in their traceability systems. This study employed a survey strategy by means of a questionnaire that was sent to food and drink companies operating in the FSC. 146 SMEs answered the questionnaire. Answers were analysed by means of quantitative tools (i.e. contingency tables; Chi-squared test; and Spearman's rank correlation). The findings show that UK SMEs are aware of the main purposes of traceability systems such as recall cost reduction, rapid recalls, and the improvement of food safety and quality, while there is a, misguided, belief that traceability systems can reduce the probability of recalls. The attitude towards traceability is found to be positive in term of recognition of its importance but an unwillingness to invest in traceability systems' enhancement is also found. The findings pose a question mark as to whether or not companies see traceability systems as a strategic tool. This study fills the gap found in the literature where few recent academic papers focused attention on SMEs awareness and attitudes towards traceability in the FSC.......
Groups of Crl:CD-1 (ICR) mice (60/group/sex) were fed 0 (2 control groups), 5000, 20,000, or 40,000?ppm of enzymatically sourced (2R,4R)-monatin salt (??R,R-monatin??) in the diet for up to two years. There were no adverse effects on survival, incidence of palpable masses and tumors, feed consumption, hematology or serum chemistry parameters, organ weights, or ophthalmic, macroscopic, and microscopic examinations. The only notable effect was statistically significantly lower mean body weights and body weight gains in all treated groups, which generally occurred throughout the study and were most likely a result of caloric dilution of the test diets and not considered adverse. There were no test article-related changes in the incidence or occurrence of neoplastic diseases in mice on this study. The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of R,R-monatin fed to mice for 24 months was 40,000?ppm, the highest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 6502 and 7996?mg/kg?bw/day in males and females, respectively.
Chitosan gelatin-based coating films were applied to beef steaks, and their effects on color preservation and lipid oxidation during retail display were evaluated. Response surface methodology was used to model and describe the effects of different biopolymer concentrations (0 to 6% gelatin; 0.5 to 1.5% chitosan; and 0 to 12% glycerol based on dry gelatin+chitosan weight) in the coating film for optimizing the best combination for meat application. Film application reduced weight loss and lipid oxidation of the steaks after 5days of storage, and films with higher gelatin concentrations were more effective. The percentage levels of different myoglobin-redox forms were not affected by coating, but myoglobin oxidation during retail display was reduced and the percentage of deoxymyoglobin increased with the gelatin content of the film. Steak color stability during retail display was promoted by film application; the steaks exhibited a darker, more intensely red color when coated in blends with higher gelatin and chitosan contents. Blends containing between 3% and 6% gelatin, between 0.5% and 1.0% chitosan and 6% glycerol exhibited the best results and provide a promising alternative to the preservation of beef in retail display.
通过单因素试验和正交试验确定了玉米发酵面团最佳制作工艺，并采用感官评价和质构特性对玉米发酵面团品质进行分析，得出酵母添加量0.8%、发酵时间为1.5h、醒发时间为40min条件下制得的玉米发酵面团硬度5 967.618、弹性809、黏聚性772、咀嚼性3 728.860、回复性354，品质良好。研究结果可为玉米主食化加工奠定良好的基础，间接推动玉米产业发展。
In the Netherlands, the EU-mandated nationwide monitoring programme and emergency response plan for radioactivity in food is implemented by RIKILT (the Dutch institute for food safety) by means of the National Monitoring Network for Radioactivity in Food (LMRV). The LMRV consists of 48 individual gamma spectrometers (Food Monitoring System, or FMS) that require little maintenance, are hosted at food processing companies and institutes throughout the Netherlands, and are operated by local personnel. From 2010 to 2013, approximately 900 samples of milk and 500 samples of other food categories were analysed on the FMSs annually, and another 1400 in the specialized radionuclide laboratories operated by RIKILT. The anthropogenic radionuclide cesium-137 (137Cs) was detected in 93 out of 11,143 samples (0.8%), mostly in wild mushrooms, game and honey. Two samples of wild boar exceeded the limit of 600 Bq/kg. In case of a nuclear accident the FMSs are used to validate the radioactive deposition calculated by dispersion models by measuring radionuclides in grass samples. No deposition of artificial radionuclides was measured in the Netherlands after the Fukushima nuclear incident. The precision of the FMSs is within the pre-set tolerance limits of 80–120% for 137Cs, cobalt-60 (60Co) and iodine-131 (131I). For potassium-40 (40K) a systematic error of +10% was observed. The recalibration of the FMSs in 2012 resulted in a reduction of almost 40% in the variation of the precision for 131I (compared to 2010 and 2011). This article describes the network and the individual FMSs, the routine measurements of food and special measurements in case of radioactive contamination, and the performance of the network.
The 2015 Dietary Guidelines recommend no more than 2300 mg sodium per day (about 1 1/2 teaspoons of salt) for the general population. And the American Heart Association, seconds the idea of restriction, but has an even stronger stance: 1,500 mg per day. That’s equivalent to almost 4 grams of salt (sodium chloride)—1 teaspoon—per day. Current estimates are that we Americans consume anywhere from 3,400 to 3,700 mg of sodium per day — over twice the recommended amount. On the other hand, some guidelines for patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF) prescribe sodium levels of 2,000 – 3,000 mg/day — but how effective are any such restrictions in promoting the health of such patients?
The basis for the recommendation is that too much sodium can exacerbate fluid retention in the feet, ankles, legs, and lungs, with the latter making it hard to breathe — the weakened heart isn’t strong enough to circulate blood enough to allow the kidneys to get rid of the excess water. And as is well known, excess sodium is strongly linked to high blood pressure. And these are a solid physiological rationales for advising such patients to restrict their salt (and thus sodium intake). However, not all the evidence supports these restrictive recommendations.
Dr. Rami Doukky of the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago and colleagues studied data of 130 HF patients who followed a sodium-restricted diet (in this study defined as less than 2500 mg sodium per day), and compared them to 130 matched patients who did not have any salt restrictions. Their report is published in the journal JACC:Heart Failure. The researchers found that about 42 percent of the salt-restricted patients died over the course of a 3-year follow-up, compared to only 26 percent of the patients with no salt restrictions. The risk of death or hospitalization for HF was also significantly higher in the patients with sodium restriction.
In their conclusion, the authors write: “In symptomatic patients with chronic HF, sodium restriction may have a detrimental impact on outcome.” And they urge the conduction of randomized trials to ascertain if the link they observed between sodium restriction and deterioration of HF patients’ conditions is indeed causal. Because of the small size of their study, its retrospective nature, and the fact that dietary data were self-reported, we certainly concur that additional research is needed — if replicated, their results have the potential to change not only the way HF patients are treated, but even recommendations for the rest of the population.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of gas plasma treatment on fresh-cut melon stability during controlled storage. Plasma treatments of 15+15 and 30+30 min were conducted on fresh cut melon using a Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) generator. Samples were packed and stored for 4 days at 10??C and evaluated for qualitative, metabolic and microbiological indexes. Qualitative parameters of fresh-cut melon (titratable acidity, soluble solid content, dry matter, colour, texture) were only weakly affected by plasma treatment. Peroxidase (POD) and pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity were slightly inhibited by the treatment up to respectively about 17 and 7%. Tissue metabolic heat production decreased proportionally to the treatment duration, while a partial conversion to anaerobic metabolism was observed. Microbial results showed that a significant increase in microbial shelf-life was achieved following the 15+15 min plasma treatment due to a delayed growth of spoilage mesophilic and psychrotrophic microflora.
Proteins in soybean whey were separated into two groups by graded salt precipitation, low and high isoelectric point protein fractions (LIP and HIP), corresponding to the mixture of Kunitz trypsin inhibitor (KTI) and Bowman?CBirk protease inhibitor (BBI) as well as the mixture of soybean agglutinin (SBA) and ??-amylase, respectively. The complex behavior of LIP and HIP with ??-carrageenan (CG) as a function of pH (7.0?C2.0) and protein-polysaccharide mass mixing ratio (1:1 to 20:1, w/w) was studied by turbidimetric titration and SDS-PAGE. During pH titration, pH?1 (the initial pH for the formation of insoluble complexes) and pHmax (the pH for maximum optical density) showed mixing ratio dependence so that the choice of mixing ratio determined the order of coacervation. SDS-PAGE results showed that at protein/polysaccharides mass ratio (Rpr/ps) of ??15:1, just only KTI (or SBA) complex with ??-carrageenan and shift to precipitates after centrifugation, BBI (or ??-amylase) was kept in supernatant. This selectivity was also independent of the total biopolymer concentration (Cp) and titration path. After removal of carrageenan, high-purity KTI, BBI and SBA (over 90% by SEC-HPLC) were obtained. Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) showed that, the smaller thermodynamic stoichiometry (n) with higher thermodynamic constants (K) was observed when KTI (or SBA) complexing with CG compared to BBI (or ??-amylase). The higher surface charge density of KTI (+0.22????10?2?C/m2) and SBA (+0.14????10?2?C/m2) may contribute partly to their higher CG thermodynamic affinity.
通过快照什么需要分类的物质作为世界上最危险的毒品酗酒吗？人可能会想到异国情调的毒害作用的毒液的黑曼巴或肉毒杆菌毒素。这个问题的真正答案是令人吃惊 — — 它有酒精。 根据疾病控制和预防 (CDC) 中心最新报告，大约 88,000 的美国人死于酒精摄入过量在 2006年-2010 年，这些数字从每年涨了。经济成本......
This is the latest in a series of annual reports providing information about the demographic and economic circumstances of households participating in the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) at both the national and State level. In Fiscal Year 2014, as in prior years, nearly two-thirds of SNAP participants were children (44 percent), elderly (10 percent), or disabled nonelderly adults (10 percent).