目录
2016年第9期(发布时间: Mar 29, 2016 发布者:潘淑春)  下载: 2016年第9期.doc       全选  导出
1   2016-03-24 15:38:00.783 由于可能的健康风险整个食品市场召回Maytag蓝奶酪 (点击量:373)

Listeria monocytogenes is an organism, which can cause serious and sometimes fatal infections in young children, frail or elderly people, and others with weakened immune systems. Although healthy individuals may suffer only short-term symptoms such as high fever, severe headache, stiffness, nausea, abdominal pain and diarrhea, Listeria monocytogenes infection can cause miscarriages and stillbirths among pregnant women.

No illnesses have been reported in connection with this recall to date.

The recalled cheese was sold cut and packaged in clear plastic wrap with scale labels in various weights reading “Maytag Blue Raw Milk,” “Maytag Blue” or “Maytag Iowa Blue Cheese” and with PLU numbers beginning with 293308 and “sell-by” dates of 1/20/2016 and 3/21/16. The product was sold from cheese cases in various Whole Foods Market stores nationwide. Out of an abundance of caution, Whole Foods Market is recalling the products from all of its stores nationwide.

The potential for contamination was discovered after testing by the State of Iowa revealed the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in two lots of product. Maytag Dairy Farms has voluntarily suspended production and distribution while the company collaborates with FDA and the State of Iowa to determine the cause of the problem.

Customers who have purchased this product should discard it, and may bring their receipt into the store for a full refund. Consumers with questions may call 512-477-5566, extension 20060, Monday through Friday, 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Central Daylight Time.

2   2016-03-24 15:43:13.5 银杏叶提取物抗家禽沙门氏菌和李斯特菌株的生物膜的影响 (点击量:370)

Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. are common foodborne pathogens in poultry and have caused a large number of outbreaks worldwide. Biofilm formation is common in the food industry and is also a mechanism of antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this work was to investigate the antimicrobial effect and mechanism of Ginkgo biloba extract against the biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates from poultry at retail markets. Bacteria detection, isolation, and enumeration were carried out on 27 chicken and 29 ducks at retail markets. The effects of temperature and G. biloba extract against biofilm formation of Salmonella and Listeria isolates were measured using the crystal violet assay and swimming and swarming motilities. The monitoring results of Salmonella and Listeria in 56 poultry carcasses at retail markets in Korea showed that the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in poultry was low (5.4%), but the prevalence of Listeria spp (78.6%) was high. L. innocua was the predominant serotype (80%) in the isolated Listeria species. Temperature, strain, and surface affected the biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. L. innocua showed the best biofilm formation ability on a 96-well plate, while Salmonella Enteritidis formed the most biofilm on a glass slide. Biofilm formation abilities of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp. were increased with the increase of temperature. G. biloba extract at 75 μg/mL significantly inhibited biofilm formation of Salmonella spp. and Listeria spp (p < 0.05). The mechanism of the antibiofilm effect of the G. biloba extract showed that the motility reduction may be one of the mechanisms of G. biloba extract against some serotypes of Salmonella and Listeria, but not L. monocytogenes. The findings of this study provided the basis for the application of G. biloba extract as a food additive to promote the quality and safety of poultry products.

3   2016-03-24 15:51:30.313 德克萨斯乳品农场环境下样品沙门氏菌的患病率与抗菌药物的敏感性 (点击量:359)

Dairy cattle are a reservoir of several Salmonella serovars that are leading causes of human salmonellosis. The objectives of this study were to estimate the environmental prevalence of Salmonella on dairy farms in Texas and to characterize the antimicrobial susceptibility of the isolates. Eleven dairy farms throughout Texas were sampled from August through October 2013, using a cross-sectional approach. Samples were collected from four locations within each farm (hospital pen, maternity pen, cow housing area, and calf housing area), and feces were collected from cull cows as available. Environmental and fecal samples were processed for Salmonella, and isolates were tested for susceptibility to 15 antimicrobial agents. Serovar characterization was performed on a subset of these isolates. Salmonella was isolated from 67.0% (236/352) of the environmental samples and 64.2% (43/67) of the cull cow fecal samples. Environmental samples from the maternity pen were significantly more likely to be Salmonella positive than samples from the cow and calf housing areas. Multidrug resistance was evident in 11.9% (27/226) of environmental isolates and 19.5% (8/41) of fecal isolates. Salmonella isolates from the calf housing area and maternity pen were significantly more likely to be multidrug resistant (MDR) than isolates from the cow housing area. The most common serovars found among the MDR isolates were Newport, Muenchen, and Typhimurium. These results help provide a focus for efforts to mitigate the burden of antimicrobial-resistant Salmonella at the preharvest level.

4   2016-03-24 16:05:17.303 健康与疾病领域新出现的纳米毒理学的若干方面:从农业和粮食部门到癌症治疗 (点击量:342)

Nanotechnology is an evolving scientific field that has allowed the manufacturing of materials with novel physicochemical and biological properties, offering a wide spectrum of potential applications. Properties of nanoparticles that contribute to their usefulness include their markedly increased surface area in relation to mass, surface reactivity and insolubility, ability to agglomerate or change size in different media and enhanced endurance over conventional-scale substance. Here, we review nanoparticle classification and their emerging applications in several fields; from active food packaging to drug delivery and cancer research. Nanotechnology has exciting therapeutic applications, including novel drug delivery for the treatment of cancer. Additionally, we discuss that exposure to nanostructures incorporated to polymer composites, may result in potential human health risks. Therefore, the knowledge of processes, including absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion, as well as careful toxicological assessment is critical in order to determine the effects of nanomaterials in humans and other biological systems. Expanding the knowledge of nanoparticle toxicity will facilitate designing of safer nanocomposites and their application in a beneficial manner.

5   2016-03-24 16:13:41.263 铁蛋白,是肉类木糖葡萄球菌铁的来源? (点击量:0)

Staphylococcus xylosus is frequently isolated from food of animal origin. Moreover, this species is one of the major starter cultures used for meat fermentation. Iron is a key element for growth and survival of bacteria. Meat is particularly rich in haemic (myoglobin and haemoglobin) and non-haemic (ferritin and transferrin) iron sources. Ferritin is a storage protein able to capture large quantities of iron. It is highly resistant to microbial attack and few microorganisms can use it as an iron source. Surprisingly, we found that the S. xylosus C2a strain grows in the presence of ferritin as a sole iron source. A three-cistron operon was highly overexpressed under ferritin iron growth conditions. We generated a deletion?Cinsertion in the first gene of the operon and evaluated the phenotype of the mutant. The mutant showed decreased growth because it was less able to acquire iron from ferritin. Transcriptional analysis of the mutant revealed downregulation of several genes involved in the response to oxidative stress. This study characterized for the first time the capacity of a Staphylococcus to use iron from ferritin and revealed that a potential reductive pathway was involved in this acquisition. We hypothesize that this ability could give an advantage to S. xylosus in meat products.

6   2016-03-24 16:18:32.983 纪念国际妇女节,尊重妇女,粮食安全的守门人 (点击量:0)

The Global Goal of Zero Hunger aims to end hunger, achieve food security and improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. Empowering women farmers will be key to success as it has been shown by FAO that “If women had the same access to productive resources as men, they could increase yields on their farms by 20– 30 percent.”  Learn more about how Organic Agriculuture can help achieve the Global Goals here. 
Furthermore,a global study carried out by IFOAM – Organics International on interactions between traditional social processes and Participatory Guarantee Systems (PGS) noted that “Women in particular are directly empowered through Participatory Guarantee Systems, as they receive equitable access to training and technical support in the PGS where they are involved. More importantly, women are given responsibility in collective activities such as seed management and collective marketing. In many cases, women are not only involved in the production of goods but are also actively involved in selling them at market places.”  Participatory Guarantee Systems  are locally focused quality assurance systems. They certify producers based on active participation of stakeholders and are built on a foundation of trust, social networks and knowledge exchange. You can learn more about the study here.

7   2016-03-24 16:26:25.99 Spar (英国)公司召回存在单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌的咖喱鸡块 (点击量:1)

The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in the product. Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterium that can cause foodborne illness, particularly among key vulnerable groups, including pregnant women, unborn and newborn babies, those over 60 years old, and anyone with reduced immunity.

Product: Spar Tikka Chicken Chunks Pack size: 140g Batch code: 2157 6041 'Use by' date: 24 February 2016

Action taken by the company.

Spar (UK) Ltd is recalling the above product. The company will be displaying point-of-sale notices in all stores. These notices will inform consumers why the product is being recalled and will tell them what to do if they have bought the product.

8   2016-03-24 16:39:23.34 对硝磺草酮活性物质的农药风险评估的同行评价 -欧洲食品安全局 (点击量:2)

Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 844/2012 (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Regulation’) lays down the procedure for the renewal of the approval of active substances submitted under Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009. The list of those substances is established in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 686/2012. Mesotrione is one of the active substances listed in Regulation (EU) No 686/2012.

In accordance with Article 1 of the Regulation, the rapporteur Member State (RMS), the United Kingdom, and co-rapporteur Member State (co-RMS), Belgium, received an application from Syngenta Crop Protection AG for the renewal of approval of the active substance mesotrione. Complying with Article 8 of the Regulation, the RMS checked the completeness of the dossier and informed the applicant, the co-RMS (Belgium), the European Commission and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) about the admissibility.

The RMS provided its initial evaluation of the dossier on mesotrione in the renewal assessment report (RAR), which was received by EFSA on 23 February 2015. In accordance with Article 12 of the Regulation, EFSA distributed the RAR to the Member States and the applicant, Syngenta Crop Protection AG, for comments on 17 April 2015. EFSA also provided comments. In addition, EFSA conducted a public consultation on the RAR. EFSA collated and forwarded all comments received to the European Commission on 18 June 2015.

Following consideration of the comments received on the RAR, it was concluded that additional information should be requested from the applicant, and that EFSA should conduct an expert consultation in the areas of mammalian toxicology, residues, environmental fate and behaviour and ecotoxicology.

In accordance with Article 13(1) of the Regulation, EFSA should adopt a conclusion on whether mesotrione can be expected to meet the approval criteria provided for in Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council.

The conclusions laid down in this report were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative use of mesotrione as a herbicide on maize, as proposed by the applicant. Full details of the representative uses can be found in Appendix A of this report.

The use of mesotrione according to the representative use proposed at EU level results in a sufficient herbicidal efficacy against the target weeds.

In the area of identity, physical/chemical/technical properties and methods of analysis, a data gap was identified for specifying two of the significant impurities on dry weight basis. Data gaps were identified for validation data of methods used in data generation.

Regarding the mammalian toxicology area, a number of data gaps were identified. The toxicological relevance of individual impurities present in the technical specification in comparison with the toxicity profile of mesotrione needs to be addressed. Interspecies comparative in vitro metabolism should be conducted to identify at least potentially unique human metabolites to mesotrione. As the genotoxic potential of metabolite AMBA could not be ruled out due to positive results obtained in an in vitro cytogenetic assay, and no in vivo genotoxicity testing was performed, a critical area of concern has been identified regarding consumer risk assessment; repeated dose toxicity would also have to be addressed for this metabolite. Mesotrione is proposed to be classified as Repr. 2 for development by the peer review (in contrast with the harmonised classification according to CLP Regulation) and adverse effects were observed on endocrine organs. Therefore, according to the interim provisions of Annex II, point 3.6.5 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 concerning human health, mesotrione may be considered to have endocrine disrupting properties. As no study is available to investigate a potential ED mode of action, a general data gap has been identified such as level 2 and 3 indicated in the OECD Conceptual Framework to address this issue; this was identified as another critical area of concern.

The consumer dietary risk assessment could not be finalised with regard to products of animal origin considering the requested clarification of the genotoxic potential and the toxicological profile of AMBA. Furthermore, the consumer risk assessment from consumption of drinking water could not be finalised whilst the nature of residues in drinking water following water treatment had not been addressed.

A data gap was also identified for the determination of the residues in pollen and bee products for human consumption.

Enough information was available to finalise the exposure assessment in the environment. Nevertheless, a data gap has been identified for the applicant to address the substances of potential toxicological concern that could be derived from mesotrione and its metabolites under drinking water treatment procedure conditions to assess if the approval criteria in Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 are satisfied.

In the area of ecotoxicology, a data gap and a critical area of concern were identified to further address the long-term risk for wild mammals. A data gap was identified to further refine the risk to aquatic organisms in the scenarios R2, R3, and R4. Data gaps were also identified for bees to provide information to further assess the risk to adult honeybees and honeybee larvae from exposure via guttation and via consumption of contaminated water. Effects on HPG development should be considered. Furthermore additional data would be needed to assess the risk to honeybees for relevant metabolites in pollen and nectar. The risk to non-target terrestrial plants was low with mitigation measures. A data gap was also identified to further address the sensitivity to mesotrione of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plant species.

9   2016-03-24 16:42:36.377 辅助更新SLR:猪的铜和抗生素耐药性 (点击量:0)

The present document has been produced and adopted by the bodies identified above as authors. This task has been carried out exclusively by the authors in the context of a contract between the European Food Safety Authority and the authors, awarded following a tender procedure. The present document is published complying with the transparency principle to which the Authority is subject. It may not be considered as an output adopted by the Authority. The European Food Safety Authority reserves its rights, view and position as regards the issues addressed and the conclusions reached in the present document, without prejudice to the rights of the authors.

10   2016-03-24 16:48:17.08 欧洲基线调查牡蛎诺如病毒的技术规格 (点击量:0)

The European Commission requested scientific technical assistance in the preparation of a survey protocol for a European Union (EU) coordinated monitoring programme on the prevalence of norovirus (NoV) in raw oysters. The objective of the survey is to estimate the European prevalence of norovirus-contaminated oysters at production areas and batches of oysters at dispatch centres, with a 95% level of confidence and a level of precision of 5% considering an expected prevalence of 50%. The survey protocol defines the target population, the sample size for the survey, sample collection requirements, the analytical method for the quantification of NoV copy number (genotype I and genotype II), the data reporting requirements and the plan of analysis. The sample unit in production areas is a classified production area actively growing commercial oysters (whether harvesting or not is occurring) and for dispatch centres is a quantity of live oysters which are being packed and labelled with an Identification Mark. Based on a multistage sampling scheme, 1,026 samples from 171 production areas and 1,182 samples from 197 dispatch centres should be taken annually in Europe. To reduce the probability of surveying an atypical year, the survey is to be repeated for a second year. The samples are to be analysed according to the method specification developed by the European Union Reference Laboratory (EURL) expert working group, which is compliant with ISO/DIS 15216-1. Generalised linear models will be used to estimate proportion (with 95% confidence intervals) of sample units with NoV contamination for the following thresholds: < limit of quantification (LOQ), 100, 200, 500, 1,000, 5,000, 10,000 and > 10,000 copies/g. The necessary data to be reported by the sampler and the laboratory to support this analysis is presented in two data models. The results of the survey should be reported using the EFSA data collection framework.

11   2016-03-25 15:30:12.94 杀菌剂咪鲜胺诱导体外氧化应激和脱氧核糖核酸损伤 (点击量:0)

Lepidopterists use substantial volumes of solvents, such as chloroform, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and xylene, in their traps when collecting faunistic and phenological data. A majority of them are citizen scientists and thus in part not identified by occupational healthcare as being at risk due to solvent handling. We surveyed the extent of solvent use, the frequency and extent of potential exposure and the safety precautions taken in trapping and catch handling by Finnish lepidopterists.

12   2016-03-25 15:42:48.887 鳞翅领域公民科学家发现可能致癌物 (点击量:0)

Lepidopterists use substantial volumes of solvents, such as chloroform, 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane and xylene, in their traps when collecting faunistic and phenological data. A majority of them are citizen scientists and thus in part not identified by occupational healthcare as being at risk due to solvent handling. We surveyed the extent of solvent use, the frequency and extent of potential exposure and the safety precautions taken in trapping and catch handling by Finnish lepidopterists.

13   2016-03-25 15:55:30.497 通过激活腺苷酸活化蛋白激酶和 葡萄糖转运蛋白4的上调,Octaphlorethol A,海洋藻类产品,可对2型糖尿病小鼠有降糖作用 (点击量:1)

Acrylamide (AA) is a process-contaminant that potentially increases the risk of developing cancer in humans. AA is formed during heat treatment of starchy foods and detected in a wide range of commonly consumed products. Increased focus on risk ranking and prioritization of major causes of disease makes it relevant to estimate the impact that exposure to chemical contaminants and other hazards in food have on health. In this study, we estimated the burden of disease (BoD) caused by dietary exposure to AA, using disability adjusted life years (DALY) as health metric.

14   2016-03-25 16:02:43.957 食品和食品成分安全评价策略的新方法 (点击量:1)

Toxicology and safety assessment are changing and require new strategies for evaluating risk that are less depending on apical toxicity endpoints in animal models and relying more on knowledge of the mechanism of toxicity. This manuscript describes a number of developments that could contribute to this change and implement this in a stepwise roadmap that can be applied for the evaluation of food and food ingredients.

15   2016-03-25 16:08:28.92 因可能存在单核细胞增生李斯特氏菌,苏格兰腌熏三文鱼有限公司召回熏鲑鱼制品 (点击量:3)

Scotch Smoked Salmon Co. Ltd is recalling the above products. The company has told its wholesale customer that distributed the product and issued a recall notice to consumers. The recall notice issued by the company explains to consumers why the product is being recalled and tells them what actions to take if they have bought the product. A copy of the point-of-sale notice can be found at the link below.

16   2016-03-25 16:23:22.803 具有剂量和尺寸依赖性的抗病毒药物对猫杯状病毒,人类诺如病毒替代品银纳米粒子的 影响 (点击量:2)

Objectives: Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) as antibacterial agents are incorporated in many consumer products, while the use as antiviral agents is an ongoing area of research. We evaluated the antiviral properties of AgNPs of variable sizes (10, 75, and 110 nm) and doses (25, 50, and 100 μg/mL) at different contact time points against feline calicivirus (FCV), a surrogate for norovirus.

Materials and Methods: Antiviral effects of the AgNPs were determined by comparing the infectivity of FCV, the appearance of cytopathic effects (CPEs), and the integrity of the viral capsid protein in viral suspension treated with AgNPs with the untreated controls.

Results: The 10 nm AgNPs at 50 and 100 μg/mL concentrations inactivated the FCV beyond the limit of detection, resulting in a decrease of up to 6.5 log10 viral titer, prevented development of CPEs, and reduction in the western blot band signal of the viral capsid protein. No significant antiviral effect was observed for the 75 and 110 nm AgNPs.

Conclusions and Applications: These results demonstrate that the antiviral effects of AgNPs are both size and dose dependent, thus potential applications of AgNPs as antiviral agents to prevent contamination of foodborne viruses need to consider size and dose effects.

17   2016-03-25 16:27:59.157 405纳米可见光对鸡皮肤的空肠弯曲菌的生存和不锈钢的影响 (点击量:4)

Campylobacter spp. are foodborne pathogens responsible for a significant portion of human cases of bacterial-mediated gastrointestinal disease. A primary method for the introduction of Campylobacter into the food supply is through poultry products. Reducing the number of Campylobacter on poultry products may reduce the incidence of human disease. Research has been conducted on the use of light to inactivate Campylobacter on poultry products and processing environments. More recently, the use of high intensity visible 405-nm light has been proposed for the elimination of pathogenic bacteria. This study investigated the ability of 405-nm light to reduce Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in poultry products. Campylobacter in chicken exudate were placed onto chicken skin or food-grade stainless steel before treatment with 405-nm light. A range of 405-nm light doses were applied to cocktails of six C. jejuni or six C. coli strains in exudate at 10°C to minimize thermal effects. Little difference was observed between inactivation of C. jejuni and C. coli on poultry skin with only minor average reductions of 1.7 logs and 2.1 logs, respectively, at the maximal dose of 184–186 J/cm2. More noticeable differences were observed when the samples were placed on stainless steel and treated with a dose of 89 J/cm2, producing an average reduction of 3.0 logs for C. coli but only 1.1 logs for C. jejuni. The maximal dose (181–183 J/cm2) applied to Campylobacter on stainless steel produced significant (p ≤ 0.05) reductions for C. jejuni and C. coli of 4.9 logs and 5.1 logs, respectively. However, significant 405-nm-mediated reductions in Campylobacter numbers required exposure times to achieve necessary dose levels that might be impractical under processing conditions. In addition, the most potent exposure times likely produced secondary thermal effects by raising sample surface temperatures above 48°C.

18   2016-03-24 16:34:19.797 对欧洲食品安全管理局第12条法规规定的矮壮素现存最大残留量的评价 (点击量:0)

Chlormequat was included in Annex I to Directive 91/414/EEC on 1 December 2009 by Commission Directive 2009/37/EC, amended by Commission Directive 2010/2/EU, and has been deemed to be approved under Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009, in accordance with Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 540/2011, as amended by Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 541/2011. As the active substance was approved after the entry into force of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005 on 2 September 2008, EFSA is required to provide a reasoned opinion on the review of the existing MRLs for that active substance in compliance with Article 12(1) of the aforementioned regulation. In order to collect the relevant pesticide residues data, EFSA asked the United Kingdom, as the designated rapporteur Member State (RMS), to complete the Pesticide Residues Overview File (PROFile) and to prepare a supporting evaluation report. The PROFile and evaluation report provided by the RMS were made available to the Member States. A request for additional information was addressed to the Member States in the framework of a completeness check period which was initiated by EFSA on 24 June 2015 and finalised on 11 September 2015. After having considered all the information provided, EFSA prepared a completeness check report which was made available to Member States on 13 October 2015.
Based on the conclusions derived by EFSA in the framework of Directive 91/414/EEC, the MRLs established by the Codex Alimentarius Commission and the additional information provided by the RMS and Member States, EFSA prepared in December 2015 a draft reasoned opinion, which was circulated to Member States for consultation via a written procedure. Comments received by 3 February 2016 were considered during the finalisation of this reasoned opinion. The following conclusions are derived.
The metabolism of chlormequat chloride has been investigated in cereals as well as in rotational crops. A similar metabolism was depicted in these studies with chlormequat being the only relevant compound identified. Hydrolysis studies simulating beer brewing (100°C, pH 4 for 120 minutes) and bread making (100°C, pH 5 for 40 minutes) showed that processing conditions relevant for cereals are not expected to degrade the parent compound significantly but a general residue definition for processed commodities could not be derived in the absence of standard hydrolysis studies. Therefore, a residue definition for cereal crops for monitoring and risk assessment was proposed as the sum of chlormequat and its salts, expressed as chlormequat chloride. The residue definition derived for cereals was also deemed appropriate for pears and cultivated fungi where carry-over of unchanged parent compounds may occurs. A validated analytical method for this residue definition in high water content, dry commodities and cereal straw is available.
The available residue trials data were considered sufficient to derive MRL proposals as well as risk assessment values for all primary crops under evaluation, except for grass which residue trials were not available. Based on the metabolism studies, no significant residues levels of chlormequat are expected in the investigated rotational crops (cereals, roots, pulses and oilseeds and leafy crops), the main part of the radioactivity being incorporated in the plant matrix. However, EFSA derived MRLs proposals in order to cover unintentional carry-over of residues in pears (due to former uses) and cultivated fungi (grown on substrate composed of cereals straw treated with chlormequat). Different options for MRLs were derived on the basis on monitoring data and different methodologies. A risk management decision should still be taken on the level of these MRLs and the period of their applicability. In addition, studies investigating the magnitude of residues in processed commodities of wheat, barley and oats allowed EFSA to derive robust processing factors for wheat (bran, flour and bread), barley (pot/pearl, malt and beer) and oat flakes.
Chlormequat is authorised for use in cereals which might be fed to livestock. The metabolism of chlormequat was investigated in lactating goats and laying hens. As metabolic pathways are expected to be similar in ruminants and pigs, the results of the goat metabolism study could be extrapolated to swine. From these studies, EFSA proposed a general residue definition for monitoring and risk assessment in livestock commodities as the sum of chlormequat and its salts, expressed as chlormequat chloride. A validated analytical method for enforcement of the proposed residue definition in commodities of animal origin is available. Based on the available feeding studies for ruminants and poultry, MRLs and risk assessment values were derived in ruminants, swine and poultry products.
Chronic and acute consumer exposure resulting from the authorised uses reported in the framework of this review and the possible carry-over in non-treated pears and cultivated fungi (considering the most protective assumption) was calculated using revision 2 of the EFSA PRIMo. The highest chronic exposure represented 28.9% of the ADI (Danish children) and the highest acute exposure amounted to 33.1% of the ARfD (wheat).
Apart from the MRLs evaluated in the framework of this review, internationally recommended CXLs have also been established for chlormequat. Additional calculations of the consumer exposure, considering these CXLs, were therefore carried out and the highest chronic exposure represented 29.3% of the ADI (Danish children) and the highest acute exposure amounted to 62.3% of the ARfD (milk and milk products).

19   2016-03-25 16:56:01.76 印度保留区食品配送计划的区域供应商试点评估 (点击量:6)

The Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR) provides USDA-purchased foods (USDA Foods) to income eligible households on Indian reservations and to Native American families residing in designated areas near reservations and in the State of Oklahoma. The standard distribution model is one in which USDA purchases approved foods that are then shipped from two national warehouses to Indian Tribal Organizations (ITOs) for pick-up by tribal members. In 2012, the Food and Nutrition Service created a pilot program using a regional vendor that assumed the responsibilities for purchasing and shipping FDPIR foods to four ITOs in Oklahoma. This report assesses that pilot and includes a qualitative evaluation of the vendor and ITO experiences and an assessment of pilot costs.

20   2016-03-25 17:02:33.507 已经发现瘦、超重和肥胖的年轻人中的支链氨基酸与心脏代谢风险有关 (点击量:13)

Cardiovascular risk is increased in obese subjects. Nevertheless, some overweight and obese remain cardio metabolically healthy, and normal-weight persons develop cardiovascular disease (CVD). Herein, we investigate the potential of branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) to identify an increased CVD risk in a cross-sectional study of 666 adults and juveniles (age 25.3 ?? 12.8 years), classified as lean, overweight, or obese. Cardio metabolic groups were defined by cut offs of systolic blood pressure <130 mmHg, diastolic BP<85, glucose<125 mg/dl, triglycerides<150 mg/dl, HDL-C>40 mg/dl males, >50 females, and HOMA-IR<5. Cardio metabolically healthy (CMH) had ??1 cut off, and cardio metabolically abnormal (CMA) ?? 2 cut offs. Amino acids were measured by high pressure lipid chromatography after precipitation of serum with perchloric acid and derivatization with o-phthalaldehyde. Valine correlated with 5, leucine with 3, and isoleucine with 5 of the cardiac risk classification factors. Valine and leucine were significantly higher in the obese (p<0.001, p=0.015, respectively), overweight (p<0.001, p=0.015, respectively) and lean (p=0.024, p=0.012, respectively) CMA compared to CMH subjects. Isoleucine showed except of the lean group the same results. Taken together, branched chain amino acids, especially valine and leucine, are proposed as a cardio metabolic risk marker independent of BMI category.

21   2016-03-25 16:38:42.517 焙烧工艺条件对可可豆,可可豆瓣,巧克力中的多酚含量的影响 (点击量:36)

The process of roasting is a significant step in cocoa bean processing. Heating results in the formation of many advantageous features of beans, such as taste, color, texture. However, these positive changes can also be accompanied by reactions reducing the content of bioactive compounds such as polyphenols. It is therefore important to select the appropriate roasting process conditions (time, temperature, humidity and flow rate of air), as well as fineness of the beans. The article describes the research on the influence of roasting parameters (temperature, roasting time, air flow rate and relative humidity) on the kinetics of changes in the content of phenolic compounds in whole beans and in cocoa nibs of different particle size. Additonally, chocolates were obtained from cocoa liquor prepared from cocoa beans roasted as whole beans as well as from fraction of cocoa nibs of middle particle size.

22   2016-03-25 16:46:15.433 消费者对工作自助餐缺乏膳食品种的感知与目标措施 (点击量:135)

Food variety has been linked to higher diet quality and increased food intake, but what constitutes variety for consumers is underexposed. The aim of the study was twofold: first to explore the relationship between objective measures of meal variety and subjective post-meal ratings of perceived variety, and second to explore the associations between subjective meal variety and decision-making rules and individual eating styles. Data consist of 510 meals compiled from workplace lunch buffets by 71 respondents over 31 optional days. Meals were photographed and coded according to the number of components (dishes served), food groups, colours, size and shape of food on the plates. A mixed model approach was used to analyse data due to the repetitive structure of the data. Results show that subjective variety was marginally associated with the number of food groups, but there was no association with other objective measures, such as the number of components or any of the visual cues of the meal. Subjective meal variety was linked with the decision-making rule of having many dishes when compiling buffet lunches. Participants with higher scores on uncontrolled eating and food neophobia were found to perceive their meals less varied than those with lower scores. Moreover, the rule of having many dishes was positively associated with uncontrolled eating and negatively associated with cognitive restraint. Consumers?? perception of within-meal variety seems to be more linked to their idea of how to compose their meal and individual tendencies towards food and eating rather than the objective measures applied.