目录
2016年第12期(发布时间: May 4, 2016 发布者:潘淑春)  下载: 2016年第12期.doc       全选  导出
1   2016-04-26 11:24:17.6 欧洲食品安全局和各成员国就植物保护中向日葵油的基本物质应用的协商结果 (点击量:358)

Sunflower oil is an active substance for which, in accordance with Article 23(3) of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009, the European Commission received an application from Institut Technique de l’Agriculture Biologique (ITAB) for approval as a ‘basic substance’. Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 introduced the new category of ‘basic substances’, which are described, among others, as active substances, not predominantly used as plant protection products but which may be of value for plant protection and for which the economic interest in applying for approval may be limited. Article 23 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 lays down specific provisions for consideration of applications for approval of basic substances.

In March 2013, the European Commission requested the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) to provide scientific assistance with respect to the evaluation of applications received by the European Commission concerning basic substances. By a further specific request, received from the European Commission on 4 March 2016, EFSA was asked to organise a consultation on the basic substance application for sunflower oil, to consult the applicant on the comments received, and to deliver its scientific views on the specific points raised in the format of a reporting table within three months of receipt of the specific request.

A consultation on the basic substance application for sunflower oil, organised by EFSA, was conducted with Member States via a written procedure in September – November 2015. Subsequently, EFSA also provided comments and the applicant was invited to address all the comments received in the format of a reporting table and to provide an application update as appropriate, within a period of 30 days.

The current report summarises the outcome of the consultation process organised by EFSA on the basic substance application for sunflower oil and presents EFSA’s scientific views on the individual comments received in the format of a reporting table.

2   2016-05-04 09:29:02.217 美国国际开发署宣布3000万大挑战打击Zika 和未来的疾病威胁 |美国国际开发署 (点击量:365)

美国国际开发署宣布美元 3000 万大挑战对付 Zika 和未来疾病威胁。

In support of the Global Health Security Agenda championed by President Obama, the Combating Zika and Future Threats Grand Challenge will invest up to $30 million in groundbreaking innovations and interventions that enhance our ability to prevent, detect, and respond in both the short and long-term by sourcing innovations that mitigate the spread and impact of Zika virus and improve our ability to combat future infectious disease outbreaks. The Challenge specifically calls for solutions that improve and enhance vector control, personal and household protection, surveillance, diagnostics, and community engagement. These will complement USAID's broader efforts, which are focused on mosquito control, educational campaigns about prevention, and maternal and child health interventions.

"To get ahead of infectious diseases like Zika, we need to move quickly to find and scale new tools and transformative solutions," said Gayle Smith, USAID Administrator. "This Grand Challenge will help unlock the scientific and technological advancements needed to accelerate our impact in the fight against Zika virus, and ensure we are better prepared for future public health threats."

Since early in 2016, the Administration has been working to combat Zika, a virus primarily spread by mosquitoes that has been linked to birth defects and other concerning health outcomes. The United States has been engaged in a whole-of-government strategy that includes efforts like laboratory capacity, the development of diagnostics and vaccines, and mapping the spread of the infection.

USAID will begin taking applications on April 29 , with Zika-focused submissions due by 5 p.m. on May 20, 2016 and all other submissions due by 5 p.m. on June 17, 2016 . For more information on the Combating Zika and Future Threats Grand Challenge, visit www.usaid.gov/grandchallenges/zika

3   2016-04-26 11:32:23.337 美国农业部 ERS-FANRR ︰ 粮食援助及营养研究计划 (点击量:355)

This report develops an economic model that provides the theoretical framework for the econometric analyses presented in the report’s companion volume, WIC and the Retail Price of Infant Formula (FANRR-39-1). The model examines supermarket retail prices for infant formula in a local market area, and...

Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Small Grants Program: Executive Summaries of 2003 Research Grants

FANRR-43, December 13, 2004

This report summarizes research findings for the Food Assistance and Nutrition Research Small Grants Program. This report includes summaries of the research projects that were awarded 1-year grants in summer and fall 2002. The projects focus on food assistance and child well-being, food insecurity a...

Effects of Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs on Nutrition and Health: Volume 3, Literature Review

FANRR-19-3, December 09, 2004

This report provides a comprehensive review and synthesis of published research on the impact of USDA's domestic food and nutrition assistance programs on participants' nutrition and health outcomes. The outcome measures reviewed include food expenditures, household nutrient availability, dietary in...

Effects of Food Assistance and Nutrition Programs on Nutrition and Health: Volume 4, Executive Summary of the Literature Review

4   2016-04-26 11:34:24.44 营养数据 ︰ 食品的营养价值 (点击量:318)

Published in 2002, HG-72 contains data on over 1,274 foods expressed in terms of common household units. The 19 nutrients in the table are water; calories; protein; total fat; saturated, monounsaturated, and polyunsaturated fatty acids; cholesterol; total dietary fiber; calcium; iron; potassium; sodium; vitamin A in IU and RE units; thiamin; riboflavin; niacin; and ascorbic acid. This edition was developed using data from Release 13 of the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference. HG-72 in PDF.

5   2016-04-26 11:39:02.48 美国农业部 ERS-食物和营养援助研究数据库 (点击量:1)

Research dissemination is a key component of ERS's food and nutrition assistance research program. ERS maintains three electronic databases to ensure that its broad spectrum of research is available to the public in an accessible format for both technical and nontechnical audiences.

Research Reports & Articles Database—Over 1,000 peer-reviewed reports and articles are available on food and nutrition assistance-related research conducted by ERS researchers or funded through ERS.

RIDGE Project Summaries—All completed projects that were awarded grants through ERS's Research Innovation and Development Grants in Economics (RIDGE) Program are available. Search the database by title, keyword, research center, initial year of project, and investigator..

6   2016-04-26 11:40:16.893 饮食指南 |食物和营养信息研究中心 (点击量:1)

Report of the Dietary Guidelines Advisory Committee on the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2015 (PDF 11 MB) U.S. Department of Agriculture; Department of Health and Human Services.

Read about the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and rationale for changes incorporated into the 2015 release of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans.

USDA Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) USDA. Center for Nutrition Policy and Promotion.

Examine evidence-based systematic reviews which inform Federal nutrition policy and programs. The Library evaluates, synthesizes, and grades the strength of available scientific evidence to support dietary recommendation and guidance.

International Food-based Dietary Guidelines UN. Food and Agriculture Organization.

View dietary guidelines from around the world. These guidelines establish a basis for each respective country's public food and nutrition, health and agricultural policies and nutrition education programs, which in turn attempt to foster healthy eating habits and lifestyles.

7   2016-04-26 11:43:18.21 美国农业部 |OCE |美国食品废物挑战 (点击量:1)

. . . . . . 美国农业部和美国环保署与私营部门、 慈善组织联合,设置全国第一个减少粮食废物的目标。Today, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack and Environmental Protection Agency Deputy Administrator Stan Meiburg announced the United States' first-ever national food waste reduction goal, calling for a 50-percent reduction by 2030. As part of the effort, the federal government will lead a new partnership with charitable organizations, faith-based organizations, the private sector and local, state and tribal governments to reduce food loss and waste in order to improve overall food security and conserve our nation's natural resources. The announcement occurs just one week before world leaders gather at the United Nations General Assembly in New York to address sustainable development practices, including sustainable production and consumption. As the global population continues to grow, so does the need for food waste reduction.

Food Retailers, Agriculture Industry, and Charitable Organizations Support First National Goal to Reduce Food Waste by 50 Percent by 2030.

Today, Agriculture Secretary Tom Vilsack and Environmental Protection Agency Administrator Gina McCarthy announced the United States' first-ever national food waste reduction goal, calling for a 50-percent reduction by 2030. As part of the effort, the federal government will lead a new partnership with charitable organizations, faith-based organizations, the private sector and local, state and tribal governments to reduce food loss and waste in order to improve overall food security and conserve our nation's natural resources. The announcement occurs just one week before world leaders gather at the United Nations General Assembly in New York to address sustainable development practices, including sustainable production and consumption..

8   2016-04-26 11:46:18.36 IFIC 基金会-你的营养和食品安全资源 (点击量:1)

IFIC Foundation’s 2015 Food and Health Survey, excitement is highest in the younger cohorts, specifically Millennials. When asked about...

Why You Should Check Food Labels for Potential Allergens

I recently read an article about a young man who suffered a deadly reaction by merely eating something he was used to eating, even though it came with a warning. Many would argue that he was taking a risk; others may not. One thing for certain, I always read the labels for the presence of allergens. I’m...

Super Confused About Super Foods? An Educated Consumer Is a Healthy Consumer

Unless you’ve been living in a cave, you’ve probably been bombarded with news about “superfoods.” But you’ve probably also wondered which foods are “super” are and what makes them that way. As it turns out, you might be asking the wrong questions. We spoke with an expert in what can more accurately be...

Citrus: Great Fruits for Heart Health

February is American Heart Month. It’s also National Grapefruit Month in the U.S. This confluence wasn’t lost on us, and it got us thinking: What role does citrus play in heart health? According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), heart disease is the No. 1 cause of death for...

News Bite: March Is National Nutrition Month

The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the world's largest organization of food and nutrition professionals. Each March, they lead America in celebrating and promoting National Nutrition Month (NNM). This year’s NNM theme is "Savor the Flavor of Eating Right." Visit the Academy of Nutrition and...

9   2016-04-29 10:41:24.687 产前山羊乳低聚糖消费影响小鼠后代的发育 (点击量:1)

The composition of the gastrointestinal (GIT) microbiota, particularly in early life, influences the development of metabolic diseases later in life. The maternal microbiota is the main source of bacteria colonising the infant GIT and can be modified by dietary prebiotics. Our objective was to determine the effects of prenatal consumption of prebiotic caprine milk oligosaccharides (CMO) on the large intestine of female mice, milk composition and offspring's development.

Methods and results

C57BL/6 mice were fed either a control diet, CMO diet, or galacto-oligosaccharide diet from mating to weaning. From weaning, some pups nursed by CMO, GOS and control-dams were fed the control diet for 30 days. CMO or GOS-fed dams had increased colon length and milk protein concentration compared to control-fed dams. At weaning, pups from CMO-fed dams had increased body weight and colon length and increased proportions of colonic Bifidobacterium spp compared to the pups from control-fed dams. Thirty days after weaning, pups from CMO-fed dams had increased visceral fat weight compared to pups from control-fed dams.

Conclusion

Consumption of CMO by the dams during gestation and lactation improved the development of the pups, and the relative abundance of bifidobacteria and butyric acid in the colon, at weaning.

10   2016-04-29 10:43:09.52 植物和草药 ︰ 食物或药物? (点击量:0)

Written records of the use of botanicals, herbs, and spices in medicine and food date back more than 5,000 years (Swerdlow 2000). Even as recently as 1890, 59% of the listings in the U.S. Pharmacopeia were from herbal products (Swerdlow 2000). It has been estimated that as many as one-third to one-half of currently used drugs were originally derived from plants (Barrett et al. 1999). According to the World Health Organization, traditional medicine is characterized by herbal remedies, which are the foundation of the present widespread use of traditional medicine in China, Africa, Europe, Southeast Asia, and North America. Egyptian schools of herbalists are said to have existed since 3000 B.C. (Penn State Extension 2016). Two of the identified uses of herbs described in oral history are the use of borage (Borago officinalis), administered to those who needed courage, and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis), which was given for memory problems. Despite these interesting healthful applications, it is important to remember that borage oil, a source of γ-linolenic acid, also contains pyrrolizidine alkaloids (Wretensjö and Karlberg 2003). The pharmacology of rosemary is considerably more complex; it is based on caffeic acid and its phenolic derivatives (Al-Sereitia et al. 1999). Adverse events associated with rosemary involve allergic reactions and pulmonary distress. These events are rare, however (Barceloux 2008).
A cursory survey of the Internet yields a myriad of articles, blogs, and, of course, marketing and sales websites devoted to botanicals, herbs, herbalism, and herbal medicine. These terms are seen in discussions of Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese medicine, and traditional African medicine and seem consubstantial with declarations of fresh air, rest, and proper diet as the basis for achieving and maintaining health and treating a vast spectrum of diseases. Recurrent themes include the “Doctrine of Signatures,” which suggests that the physical appearance of an herb is indicative of therapeutic use; the notion that plants grown in a certain area tend to cure the diseases afflicting that region; the idea that herbs are “holistic;” and the position that the various whole plant extracts in herbal medicines are superior to the single pure component of a drug since the multiple ingredients enhance therapeutic effect and limit side effects.
Throughout world markets, including those in developing countries, species of medicinal plants appear to be playing an increasingly important role; they are abundant, locally available, relatively inexpensive, and consistently associated with safety and efficacy (George 2011). According to a 2008 consumer assessment of herbal product usage, herbal products have gained popularity in recent times and even 10 years ago were used by approximately 20% of the population (Bent 2008).
There seem to be almost as many definitions of these apparently simple plant-related terms as there are examples of the plants that they are purported to describe. Ingredients characterized as botanical or herbal appear in teas, foods, tinctures, oils, extracts, syrups, tablets, lozenges, creams, salves, lotions, and poultices.
The dose and form of a botanical preparation play important roles in its safety. Teas, tinctures, and extracts have very different strengths. The same amount of a botanical may be contained in a cup of tea, a few teaspoons of tincture, or an even smaller quantity of an extract. Each botanical or herb may contain any stable or variable combination and dose of dozens of compounds such as fatty acids, sterols, alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, saponins, and others (Rotblatt and Ziment 2002).
Herbs are often perceived as natural and therefore safe, despite the fact that many different side effects have been reported, likely related to varying, unknown, or unstudied active ingredients, contaminants, or interactions with drugs (Bent 2008). Particularly concerning is that the true frequency of side effects for most herbs is not known because most have simply not been tested in large clinical trials and because surveillance systems and compendia of classification such as the German Commission E reports are much less extensive or scientifically substantive than similar works that exist for pharmaceutical products (Blumenthal et al. 1998).

11   2016-04-29 10:47:08.183 十大功能食品趋势-IFT.org (点击量:0)

Consumers are taking a more holistic view of health and nutrition—a view that reflects a rising fear of chemicals and artificial ingredients, a belief that fresh whole foods offer greater nutritional value, and the realization that foods can help prevent or mitigate even serious health conditions.
Fifty-five percent of U.S. households have members who are watching their diet. Of these households, 66% are doing so for general health reasons; 55%, to lose weight; 40%, to limit fat, sugar, sodium, etc.; 38%, to prevent future medical issues; 37%, to maintain weight; 22%, to treat a current medical condition; and 10%, to control a real or perceived food allergy/intolerance (Packaged Facts 2015a).
Three-quarters of Millennials think their diets could be healthier; 64% of those aged 70-plus feel that way (FMI 2015a). Younger adults aged 18–34 are the most likely to use functional foods (MSI 2014a).
Functional food sales topped $55.1 billion in 2015, up 7.7%, and are projected to reach $63.3 billion by 2017. Functional beverage sales are projected to reach $41.4 billion in 2017, which is up from $35.6 billion in 2015 (NBJ 2016).
Products associated with general heart health, cholesterol, digestion, energy, bone health, immunity, weight, and blood pressure are among the most consumed functional foods (MSI 2014a).
Although the traditional drivers of food selection—taste, price, convenience, health, safety, social impact, and, for some, sustainability—remain important, 51% of consumers are relying more heavily on a new group of “evolving drivers” when making food purchase decisions; these purchase influencers tend to be focused on clean labels and nutrition (Deloitte 2015).
These progressive health shoppers can be broken out into three groups. Members of the first group are described as “balanced buyers;” they are interested in balanced nutrition, nutrient content claims, fewer ingredients, no preservatives or artificial ingredients, and limited or no processing. A second group includes those who seek foods that are free from harmful elements, and the third group comprises naturally oriented buyers who prefer foods that are organic, all-natural, antibiotic- and hormone-free, and not genetically modified (Deloitte 2015).
This powerful bloc of more naturally driven shoppers is less trusting of large, national food/beverage brands and instead favors niche brands from smaller companies. Most important, the way consumers respond to these new drivers is very similar across all geographic regions, age groups, and income levels (Deloitte 2015).
Chemicals were the top food safety consumer concern in 2015, with the number of those who listed chemicals as their top concern up 13% over 2014; foodborne illness was next on the list of consumer concerns. Only 11% of adults said they were very confident in the safety of the U.S. food supply (IFIC 2015). Nearly half of adults changed a food purchase due to recent negative information about food chemicals (FMI 2015a).

12   2016-04-29 10:48:41.613 全谷物和健康 ︰ 强化饮食的改变-IFT.org (点击量:0)

The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and its predecessors stressed that whole grains remain a food category that many Americans simply do not eat enough of, and that whole grains are a major source of dietary fiber, which is a shortfall nutrient in the United States. How can this trend be reversed? Increasing the amount and variety of whole grain foods in U.S. school food programs was one of the original goals of the Grains for Health Foundation, which is a collaborative group of researchers, educators, health professionals, and industry leaders working together to make whole grains more accessible to consumers. Through research, training programs for school foodservice personnel, and other activities, the foundation realized its initial objective.
The U.S. Dept. of Agriculture (USDA) implemented a requirement (effective July 1, 2014) that all grains served at the national school breakfast and lunch programs must be whole grain-rich. The USDA Food and Nutrition Service defines whole grain-rich foods as products with at least 50% whole grains, and that any other grains in these products must be enriched. Food manufacturers responded to the legislative change with more offerings suitable for school programs.
Enlarge this Image
Figure 1. Percent of breakfast and lunch meals containing whole grains at different school levels. Adapted from Merlo et al. (2015)
Some challenges remain such as plate waste and food neophobia. A comparison of Nebraskan fifth grade students (ages 9–12 years) in Title I schools where at least 40% of students receive free or reduced-cost school lunches with students in non-Title I schools demonstrates the complex nature of nutrition education (Hall et al. 2016). Students in the Title I schools had significantly lower knowledge and intakes of whole grains. Elementary school students in southeast Texas chose more whole-grain foods in 2013 than they did in 2011, with no difference in waste (Cullen et al. 2015). Whole grains were widely available in U.S. schools according to the 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) (Figure 1) (Merlo et al. 2015).
Whole Grain Summit The Grains for Health Foundation organizes a Whole Grain Summit conference regularly to foster communication about whole grains and to identify potential avenues for increasing whole grain consumption. The 2015 conference was held June 24–26 in Portland, OR, and was jointly hosted by the Oregon State University Moore Family Center for Whole Grain Foods, Nutrition and Preventive Health and the Grains for Health Foundation. The Moore Family Center was established through a generous donation by Bob and Charlee Moore, the founders of Bob’s Red Mill Natural Foods, which is based in Milwaukie, OR.
Catherine Woteki, the under secretary for the USDA’s Research, Education, and Economics (REE) program and the USDA’s chief scientist, welcomed attendees with her discussion of the importance of public-private partnerships in grains and health. She described new ventures to translate USDA findings into practical solutions for the food industry. Her keynote presentation set the tone for the conference: government, industry, and academia must work together to increase whole grain consumption for improved public health. Physiologist Kent Thornburg, director of the Moore Institute for Nutrition and Wellness and M. Lowell Edwards Chair, professor of Medicine, director of the Center for Developmental Health at the Knight Cardiovascular Institute at Oregon State University, focused his second keynote presentation on the timely topic of epigenetic gene regulation by diet and the need for encouraging healthful diets early in the lifespan, even before birth.

13   2016-04-29 10:52:06.987 战略指导 | 联合国粮食及农业组织 (点击量:0)

FAO provides strategic guidance to its Member States and their development partners on how to maximise the nutritional impact of food and agriculture policies, programmes, and investments.
The guidance provided capitalizes on scientific evidence and lessons learned through field experience, and is primarily targeted for professionals working in policy and programme formulation, in government, donor institutions (including agricultural development banks), Non-Governmental Organisations, civil society and academic or training institutions.
FAO also works closely with members of the Scaling Up Nutrition Movement to ensure food and agriculture issues are taken into consideration in methods and tools used for nutrition policies’ formulation, implementation and evaluation.
 
IMPROVING DIETS AND NUTRITION Nutrition-sensitive, food-based approaches towards hunger and malnutrition are effective, sustainable and long-term solutions. This book discusses the policy, strategic, methodological, technical and programmatic issues associated with such approaches.
SYNTHESIS OF GUIDING PRINCIPLES ON AGRICULTURE PROGRAMMING FOR NUTRITION This report summarizes the results of an international, multi-stakeholders review, provides analysis and to strengthen knowledge, commitment, and action to make agriculture work for nutrition.

14   2016-04-29 10:55:04.483 营养评价 | 联合国粮食及农业组织 (点击量:0)

The FAO Nutrition Division provides expertise to support countries in collecting, harmonizing and disseminating high quality information on diet and nutrition. To this scope, we improve assessment tools; develop countries’ capacities to collect data; and work to develop a global web-based platform providing free access to country-specific nutrition information based on food consumption.

To improve nutrition assessment tools, capacities and practices in support of better nutrition, FAO partners with many key actors at national and international level. Currently, FAO is collaborating on nutrition assessment intiatives and projects with: the Food and Nutrition Technical Assistance Project (FANTA),.

15   2016-04-29 11:06:09.297 营养和健康饮食资源 | 粮农组织 (点击量:0)

Materials and resources on food, health and nutrition are available for a variety of audiences and settings, using various communication and promotion channels. These materials emphasize the need to adapt information to the local context and culture and use a practical, hands-on approach that helps to reinforce learning and establish healthful eating behaviour and lifestyle practices.

For health and agriculture workers, nutritionists, and other community development workers designing nutrition education materials, activities and training. Includes 11 topics, covering basic nutrition, family food security, meal planning, food hygiene and nutritional needs at different life stages.

A planning guide for including food and nutrition education in the primary school curriculum. Consists of a two-volume set including a technical reader, a set of worksheets and activities and a classroom curriculum chart. Available in English and French.

16   2016-04-29 11:11:17.943 世界卫生日的精神食粮 (点击量:0)

Getting your daily nutrients can be more difficult now than it was in the past. Fruit and vegetables grown decades ago were much richer in vitamins and minerals than the varieties most of us get today. A study of British nutrient data from 1930 to 1980, published by the British Food Journal, found that in 20 vegetables the average calcium content had declined by 19 percent, iron by 22 percent and potassium by 14 percent.  Another study concluded that we would have to eat eight oranges today to derive the same amount of Vitamin A that our grandparents would have gotten from one.
The reasons for this include: 
Industrial farming, processing and trading methods are causing a decline of minerals e.g. copper, iron, magnesium and potassium, in fruit and vegetables..
Modern-day intensive agricultural methods are stripping more and more nutrients from the soil in which we grow food..
Artificial fertilizers used to speed the growth and productivity of crops might not take account of the delicate balance of mineral requirements in plants and foods..
Fruit and vegetable often embark on a long journey before landing in our homes. Nutritionists say this may be affecting their vitamin content as fresh fruit and vegetables are more likely to contain the most vitamins..
Using artificial ripening on vegetables like tomatoes lowers the nutritional value of the products - tomatoes accumulate nearly all the sugars and many flavonoids in their last 3 days on the vine..
To ensure you get the most nutritious fruits and vegetables, you should buy regularly from local organic farms.

17   2016-05-04 09:31:50.277 南苏丹冲突扩大中显现的粮食缺口 -联合国评估 (点击量:0)

Cereal prices have shot up nearly five-fold since early last year, making it increasingly difficult for people to get enough to eat, according to a new joint Crop and Food Security Assessment Mission report  by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the World Food Programme (WFP).
The crisis in South Sudan is marked by alarming levels of hunger. Some 5.8 million people, or nearly half of the country's population, are unsure where their next meal will come from, while the rate of severe food insecurity has now reached 12 percent, double the rate of one year ago.
"South Sudan is facing a deadly blend of conflict, economic hardship and poor rains. Together, they are worsening a hunger gap that we fear will force more people to go hungry and increase malnutrition," said WFP Country Director Joyce Luma. "This report makes it clear that improving the food situation requires a peaceful resolution to the conflict."
"Food insecurity has spread to areas previously considered relatively stable, highlighting the cumulative impact of conflict, economic downturn and climactic shocks," said Serge Tissot, FAO Representative in South Sudan.
Localised production failure, markets paralyzed by crisis
South Sudan's cereal shortfall is mainly the result of unfavourable rains in parts of the  Bahr el-Ghazal and Equatoria states and disruptions to cropping activities caused by worsening insecurity.
South Sudanese families are forced to cope with soaring cereal prices, which are driven by a combination of the sharp devaluation of the local currency and higher transport costs.
Links between cereal-producing areas - mostly in the Equatoria and Bahr el-Ghazal states - and main markets have become extremely difficult due to heightened insecurity, a proliferation of roadblocks and exorbitant ad hoc taxes levied on commercial transporters along major trade routes.
"Despite huge potential for agricultural production - more than 90 percent of South Sudan's land is arable - just 4.5 percent of available land was under cultivation when the country gained independence in 2011. Now, after over two years of civil war, this percentage has significantly decreased due to widespread insecurity, damage to agricultural assets and limitations in traditional farming methods," said Tissot.
"Yet crop production is possible in the stable areas within conflict-affected states, and is more important than ever. Communities cannot rely on markets or aid deliveries for food, and therefore need to produce on their own," he added. "FAO is working with farmers, fishers and herders, providing them with emergency livelihood kits, seeds, tools, animal health support and training."
Bridging the food gap
The report makes a series of recommendations for immediate action to address hunger, strengthen domestic food production and reduce the food gap in 2016 and into next year.
Most urgent is the need for an immediate improvement of security across the country. In addition, agencies like WFP, FAO and partner organizations need sustained access and resources to provide targeted food and livelihood assistance to the very vulnerable households in areas with the highest levels of food insecurity, especially in parts of Greater Upper Nile and Eastern Equatoria. Where appropriate, provision of livelihoods assistance - such as seeds or tools - that allow communities to produce their own food is required to withstand market disruptions. Improving people's access to micronutrient- and protein-rich food could be achieved through the distribution of fishing kits and use of nutrition vouchers to be traded for locally sourced vegetables, fish and milk.
Other recommendations include: supporting the 2016 cropping season across all of South Sudan by ensuring access to agricultural and fisheries inputs; strengthening farmer and pastoral field schools; expanding veterinary campaigns aimed at keeping people's livestock healthy; and, in conflict-affected areas, assisting in re-establishing livelihoods whenever possible by helping in land preparation and access to inputs.
In 2016, FAO and WFP, together with their partners, will support efforts that aim to increase food availability, strengthen livelihoods and build resilience.
Under the 2016 Humanitarian Appeal, FAO appealed for $45 million to assist 2.8 million people with seeds, tools and other inputs to produce food and keep their livestock healthy, and strengthen the Government's efforts to boost food security. The current funding gap is 16.1 million to meet this goal.
WFP plans to provide food assistance and specialized nutrition support for about 3 million people in South Sudan in 2016, but has a funding gap of $241 million for the next six months.

18   2016-04-29 11:17:57.6 游离糖和脂肪总量是整个童年和青春期与肥胖相关联的膳食模式的重要特征 (点击量:0)

Background: The importance of dietary sugar compared with fat in the development of obesity is currently a topic of debate.
Objective: We aimed to identify dietary patterns (DPs) characterized by high sugar content, high fat content, or both and their longitudinal associations with adiposity during childhood and adolescence.
Methods: Participants were 6722 children from the ALSPAC (Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children) who were born in 1991–1992. DPs were characterized by percentage of total energy intake (%E) from free sugars, %E from total fat, and dietary energy density (DED) and fiber density by using reduced rank regression at 7, 10, and 13 y of age. Total body fat mass was measured at 11, 13, and 15 y of age. Regression analyses were used to adjust for dietary misreporting, physical activity, and maternal social class.
Results: Two major DPs were identified: higher z scores for DP1 were associated with greater DED, greater %E from free sugars and total fat, and lower fiber density; higher z scores for DP2 were associated with greater %E from free sugars but lower %E from total fat and DED. A 1-SD increase in z score for DP1 was associated with a mean increase in the fat mass index z score of 0.04 SD units (95% CI: 0.01, 0.07; P = 0.017) and greater odds of excess adiposity (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.0, 1.25; P = 0.038). DP2 was not associated with adiposity.
Conclusions: An energy-dense DP high in %E from total fat and free sugars is associated with greater adiposity in childhood and adolescence. This appears to confirm the role of both fat and sugar and provides a basis for food-based dietary guidelines to prevent obesity in children.

19   2016-04-29 11:19:54.6 2015 膳食指南支持健康饮食的瘦牛肉 (点击量:2)

(January 7, 2016) – The 2015 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, released t oday by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, re affirm the role of lean beef in a healthy diet and confirm that Americans are, on average, consuming lean meat in daily amounts that are consistent with the recommendations for protein foods. National Cattlemen’s Beef Association President Philip Ellis commended HHS Secretary Sylvia Burwell and USDA Secretary Tom Vilsack for ensuring the final recommendations were based on the latest nutrition evidence available.

Dr. Richard Thorpe, a physician and Texas cattle producer, agreed, saying he is pleased the guidelines recognize all the strong science that supports the many Americans who are looking to build a healthful diet with lean beef.

“As a physician, I appreciate the Secretaries making sure the dietary guidelines are based on the latest nutrition science,” said Thorpe. “Numerous studies have shown positive benefits of lean beef in the diet, and I commonly encourage my patients to include beef in their diet to help them maintain a healthy weight and get the nutrients they need to be physically active. Lean beef is a wholesome, nutrient-rich food that helps us get back to the basics of healthy eating, providing many essential nutrients such as zinc, iron, protein and B vitamins, with fewer calories than many plant-based sources of protein.”

Updated every five years, this report serves as the foundation for federal nutrition policy and shapes the recommendations found on USDA’s MyPlate. While there is no one-size-fits-all diet, Dr. Thorpe said consumers can feel confident about putting lean beef on their plate knowing t he Dietary Guidelines recommend Americans choose lean meat. Thirty-eight cuts of beef now meet government guidelines for lean, including some of America’s favorite cuts like sirloin steak and 95 percent lean ground beef.

“Over the last decade or so, a s ignificant amount of research shows that many people can lose and maintain a healthy weight, support a healthy metabolism and age more vibrantly when they consume more high-quality protein, within calorie goals,” said Thorpe. “As a physician, I see an opportunity to improve the health of Americans in all age categories by choosing nutrient rich protein foods, like lean beef, more often and by pairing them with more vegetables, fruits and whole grains.”

Ellis, a Wyoming rancher, noted the changes in today's retail meat case and said cattlemen and women provide a healthful product that consumers demand.

“U.S. cattle producers work each and every day to provide safe, wholesome and nutritious beef for consumers around the world,” said Ellis. “Since the first Dietary Guidelines were released in 1980, external fat on beef has decreased 81 percent and 65 percent of the most popular beef cuts sold at retail are lean, a prime example of beef producers responding to consumers’ nutritional preferences.”

20   2016-04-29 11:25:49.64 花卉食品问题过敏警报和Cobblestone面包有限公司自愿召回小麦英式松饼 (点击量:10)

THOMASVILLE, Ga. – Flowers Foods, Inc. (NYSE: FLO) is voluntarily recalling Cobblestone Bread Co. Wheat English Muffins with the UPC # 0 72250 01316 1 and best by dates of October 28, 2015 through April 10, 2016 because they contain undeclared milk. People who have allergies to dairy products run the risk of serious or life–threatening allergic reaction if they consume these products. No illnesses have been reported to date.

The recalled product involves distribution to retail stores in: Connecticut, Delaware, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, North Carolina, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington DC, and West Virginia.

The voluntary recall was initiated after Flowers discovered that product containing milk was distributed in packaging that did not reveal the presence of milk.

Approximately 10,000 packages of English muffins are involved in the recall. Flowers issued the voluntary recall and is advising its trade customers to withdraw this product from sale. The company is in the process of recovering the product involved and is in contact with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to ensure the continued safety of those consumers who may be impacted by this issue. The company has also reported the recall to FARE (Food Allergy Research & Education).

Consumers who have purchased Cobblestone Bread Co. Wheat English Muffins with the UPC and dates noted are urged to return to the place of purchase for product replacement or refund. No other Cobblestone Bread Co. brand products are included in this recall.

Consumers with questions may call Flowers' Consumer Relations Center at 1-866-245-8921. The center is open Monday through Friday from 8:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m. Eastern. Consumers also may contact the center via e-mail by visiting the Contact Us page at http://www.flowersfoods.com.

About Flowers Foods Headquartered in Thomasville, Ga., Flowers Foods, Inc. (NYSE: FLO) is one of the largest producers of fresh packaged bakery foods in the United States, with 2015 sales of $3.8 billion. Flowers operates bakeries across the country that produce a wide range of bakery products. Among the company's top brands are Nature's Own, Wonder, and Tastykake. Learn more at www.flowersfoods.com.

21   2016-04-29 11:34:24.143 以食品摄入频率问答评估低收入的2-4岁儿童饮料及食物组摄入量的可靠性和有效性 (点击量:47)

The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire was developed for use in periodic phone surveys conducted with low-income families with preschool-aged children. Seventy primary caregivers of 2- to 4-year-old children completed two Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaires within a 2-week period for test−retest reliability. Participants also completed three 24-hour recalls to allow assessment of validity. Intraclass correlations were used to examine test−retest reliability. Spearman rank correlation coefficients, Bland−Altman plots, and linear regression analyses were used to examine validity of the Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire compared with three 24-hour recalls.

Results.

Intraclass correlations between Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire administrations ranged from 0.48 for sweetened drinks to 0.87 for regular sodas. Intraclass correlations for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.56, 0.49, and 0.56, respectively. Spearman rank correlation coefficients ranged from 0.15 to 0.59 for beverages, with 0.46 for sugar-sweetened beverages. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for fruits, vegetables, and sweetened food were 0.30, 0.33, and 0.30, respectively. Although observation of the Bland−Altman plots and linear regression analyses showed a slight upward trend in mean differences, with increasing mean intake for five beverage groups, at least 90% of data plots fell within the limits of agreement for all food/beverage groups.

Conclusions.

The Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire exhibited fair to substantial test−retest reliability and moderate to strong validity in ranking fruits, vegetables, sweetened food, and the majority of beverages consumed by children aged 2 to 4 years old. Although the Child Food and Beverage Intake Questionnaire might not be able to assess the absolute intake of foods and beverages, given the scarcity of an easily administered, valid, and reliable questionnaire to assess nutritional intake among 2- to 4-year-old low-income children, this tool is a useful means for measuring trends in dietary intake among low-income preschoolers.

22   2016-05-04 09:27:18.99 血浆脂肪酸模式反映饮食习惯和代谢健康:一项交叉研究 (点击量:166)

Using pattern analysis, we investigated the relationship between plasma fatty acid patterns, dietary intake, and biomarkers of metabolic health using data from the Irish National Adult Nutrition Survey.

Methods and results

Plasma fatty acid patterns were derived from 26 plasma fatty acids using k-means cluster analysis. Four clusters were identified, each with a distinct fatty acid profile. Cluster 1 included high proportions of linoleic acid (LA) and low proportions of stearic acid (SA); cluster 2 was higher in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids and SA; the profile of cluster 3 was higher in very-long-chain saturated fatty acid (VLCSFA) and lower in α-linolenic acid (ALA) (cluster 3); while cluster 4 was higher in fatty acids related to de novo lipogenesis and 20:3n-6 and lower in LA (cluster 4). In general, cluster 4 was associated with adverse metabolic profile and higher metabolic risk (p < 0.033). Clusters 2 and 3 were associated with healthier and protective phenotypes (p < 0.033).

Conclusion

Distinct fatty acid patterns were identified which were related to demographics, dietary habits, and metabolic profile. A pattern higher in VLCSFA and lower in ALA was associated with healthier metabolic outcome.