A study from Shanghai involving more than 70,000 healthy women shows that consuming soyfoods reduces risk of breast cancer. The study is good news for Western women and girls because they, too, can derive health benefits and reduce their risk of breast cancer by starting to incorporate higher amounts of soyfoods into their diets.
After following 70,000 study participants for more than 13 years, the Shanghai study found that 1,034 participants developed breast cancer. Here are some details from the study.
Consuming approximately one-and-a-half servings of soyfoods per day during adolescence was associated with a nearly 50 percent lower risk of developing breast cancer before menopause..
Consuming approximately two servings of soyfoods per day during adulthood was associated with a one-third reduction in the risk of postmenopausal breast cancer..
Consuming soyfoods early in life was not protective against breast cancer after menopause. The investigators who conducted the study reasoned that the protective effects of consuming soy early in life are fully present during the premenopausal period, so there is no further protection against breast cancer after menopause..
The study from Shanghai is relevant for American women—whose diets have not traditionally included soy— because adult soy intake was protective against breast cancer only among women who consumed little soy when they were young. By doing so now, women can reduce their risk of breast cancer. Also, young girls who consume soy will significantly reduce their risk later in life. Current U.S. breast cancer statistics show that about one in eight American women will develop invasive breast cancer over the course of her lifetime.
The Soyfoods Council reminds you that one serving of soyfoods—including soymilk and edamame—provides approximately 7 to 15 grams of high-quality plant-based protein. Unlike many commonly consumed protein-rich foods, soyfoods are also cholesterol-free and low in saturated fat.
This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction.
Methods and results
: Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in 5 participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4’-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4’-O-sulfate and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for.
: The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction.
The meat chain sector is recognized as one of the leading polluters in the food industry. Research on environmental performance in the meat industry has been analyzed in terms of the meat product(s), the manufacturing processes and environmental practices in which the meat companies operate.
Scope and approach
A literature review was performed by analyzing published scientific papers in the domains of environmental impacts in the meat chain. The selection criteria were focused on different environmental approaches applied in the meat chain and on the perspectives of future research.
Key Findings and Conclusions
This review revealed that the focus of product based approach performed through life-cycle assessments were mainly farms. Scientific papers covered calculations of global warming, acidification and eutrophication potentials. On the contrary, process based approaches investigated on-site environmental impacts of meat production. They were focused on discharge of waste water and solid waste and consumption of water and energy. Finally, environmental systems in the meat chain were the least investigated stream and they analyzed level of practices in respect to the size of the meat companies, their role in the meat chain and certification status. Future research should focus on the development of new dimensions of environmental improvements in the meat chain to enable benchmarking and comparing various meat technologies. Also, analysis of environmental practices throughout the meat chain could be of added value in the exploration of environmental improvement techniques on-site.
Floor-drains in food production environments harbour diverse microbes and can be contamination sources. To prevent cross-contamination with spoilage organisms or pathogens, sanitation protocols are regularly applied in food processing facilities. Along with product-associated samples, floor-drain water serves as an important indicator in hygiene monitoring in food processing facilities. However, knowledge about the microbial communities in floor-drains is still low. In this study, the microbial communities in floor-drain water and biofilm samples from an Austrian dairy plant were analysed and revealed that floor-drain microbial communities are dominated by product-associated microbes. DNA was extracted of drain water and drain biofilm samples from three different areas (n?=?6) of an Austrian cheese production facility. To characterise the bacterial and eukaryotic communities, 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing as well as cloning and sequencing of 18S rRNA genes were used. Floor-drain communities were dominated by product-associated bacterial (e.g. Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens, Streptococcus thermophilus) and eukaryotic phylotypes (e.g. Debaryomyces hansenii, Saccharomyces unisporus). In addition, putative drain water-derived phylotypes (e.g. Psychrilyobacter atlanticus, Cobetia marina) and ciliates were identified.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and the Government of the People's Republic of China have announced plans to intensify their partnership in south-south cooperation activities, FAO announced today. After decades of successful collaboration, China and FAO have agreed to broaden the scope of their cooperation, building on their achievements to further promote rural development worldwide. A new Memorandum of Understanding on the Strategic Cooperation on Agriculture and Food Security, agreed Saturday, will pave the way for this. The MoU will facilitate Chinese assistance to other countries through China's Belt and Road Initiative and further afield with other countries in Africa and Latin America. "This comprehensive partnership between China and FAO opens the door for closer collaboration to work together on transboundary diseases, agricultural value chain development, innovative science and technology to combat climate change, and further development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT)," said FAO Director-General, José Graziano da Silva. The Director-General made the remarks today following a meeting with China's Minister of Agriculture, Han Changfu. Minister Han noted that the G20 Countries had just last week highlighted the importance of promoting ICT in agricultural applications and he looked forward to the Director-General's leadership in this area. The new agreement between FAO and China aims to build on more than 40 years of collaboration between the two, which in recent years has delivered successful initiatives in South-South Cooperation for food security and nutrition. China has been one of the largest contributors to the SSC, both in financial terms and through sharing its own extensive experience, knowledge and technologies with other countries. For its part, FAO has provided technical support to more than 400 agricultural projects benefiting tens of millions of people across China. China has much to offer the world Signed in Xi'an, the historic starting point of the Silk Road that allowed silk, horses, gold and ideas to flow between East Asia and Europe, the new MoU will promote the complementarities between FAO's Strategic Programmes and Regional Initiatives and China's "Belt and Road Initiative", a vast infrastructure investment programme linking Asia and Europe and extending to Oceania and East Africa. "China has much to offer to all developing countries in the world in terms of agriculture and food security," Graziano said, pointing to the example of an ancient farming system where farmers in Zhejiang Province combine rice farming with aquaculture, literally growing fish in their flooded paddy fields. The rice paddies offer protection and organic food for the fish. In return the fish soften the soil, provide nutrients and oxygen for the rice and consume insects and weeds that are harmful to the rice. The rice-fish system has been in existence for one-thousand years and was designated a Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System (GIAHS) by FAO. "China's experience with GIAHS is remarkable and could be a source of inspiration to many countries," Graziano concluded. Since 1990, China has successfully lifted 138 million people out of chronic hunger and reached the World Food Summit Goal, in addition to reaching the Millennium Development Goal of halving the prevalence of hunger ahead of the 2015 deadline. There is a mutual understanding that the MoU will be beneficial not only for both parties, but also for many developing countries in the context of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and to reach the goal of zero hunger worldwide within this generation.
The idea of building up a glossary of scientific terms most often used in EFSA’s communication materials was raised at a meeting of EFSA’s Advisory Forum Working Group on Communications, which brings together communication experts from national food safety agencies across the EU. The new glossary will support national food safety authorities in their communications to consumers about food safety and will be a working document.
Currently the glossary contains simple definitions of over 250 scientific terms, which the EFSA state will bring extra clarity to EFSA's communications. The glossary will be gradually integrated into EFSA news and topics.
The glossary is available in English, French, German and Italian in the form of an A-Z list.
In a one-day workshop being held, staff from WFP and the Dili Municipal Health Services will bring together their expertise in supply chain management. The partners are working together to pilot new technology for the online tracking of medical and nutrition supplies as they are delivered from central supply centres to local-level health posts. The online tracking system will replace a paper-based system, which made it difficult for health facilities to track the movement of supplies in real time.
We are confident this partnership will help staff within SAMES and health facilities build the skills needed to better manage medical supply chains which will help get food to malnourished children more quickly and efficiently, said Stephen Kearney, Country Director for WFP in Timor-Leste.
SAMES has already been delivering special nutritious food to health facilities across Dili under the Ministry of Health, Mother and Child Health and Nutrition Programme, which is funded by KOICA and the European Union.
WFP provides a locally-produced supplementary food called Timor Vita for pregnant women and nursing mothers, as well as nutrient-dense specialized food for children under five.? SAMES has delivered nutritional food to 7,716 pregnant women and 5,215 young children since December 2015.
WFP is the world's largest humanitarian agency fighting hunger worldwide, delivering food assistance in emergencies and working with communities to improve nutrition and build resilience. Each year, WFP assists some 80 million people in around 80 countries.
A self-powered time-temperature integrator (TTI) was developed by modifying a biofuel cell and characterised in terms of kinetics and temperature dependency. The TTI was composed of two immobilised enzyme electrodes, (+) and (−), and a cavity containing substrates. The enzymes (laccase and glucose oxidase), mediators (methylene blue, 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid hydrate, ferrocenium hexafluorophosphate, 4,4-sulfonydiphnol) and stabilisers (pyrrole) were immobilised on a glassy carbon electrode by electrodeposition by applying a square wave (10 s at 4 V then 3 s at 0.5 V) for 180 cycles. The primarily measured output voltage, which corresponds to a rate of food quality change, was mathematically converted to a secondary variable, its integral value, representing the food quality level. The temperature dependency of the self-powered TTI was modified by using sodium azide, and the shelf-life of TTI could be adjusted to match that of the food product by changing glucose concentrations. The optimum Arrhenius activation energy was found to be 78.22 kJ/mol with a sodium azide concentration of 0.02 M and the glucose concentration at the maximum (5.05 M), it used continuously for 7 days at 25 °C. Through a case study with milk, the novel TTI was found to accurately detect milk quality changes. The self-powered TTI can be utilised as an intelligent versatile sensor in the food distribution system with an appropriate IT platform. In particular, if the TTI is incorporated with RFID tag, we will see a new generation of smart RFID tag for intelligent food packaging.
The method of liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometry was utilized and modified to confirm and quantify acrylamide in heating cooking oil and animal fat. Heating asparagine with various cooking oils and animal fat at 180 °C produced varying amounts of acrylamide. The acrylamide in the different cooking oils and animal fat using a constant amount of asparagine was measured. Cooking oils were also examined for peroxide, anisidine and iodine values (or oxidation values). A direct correlation was observed between oxidation values and acrylamide formation in different cooking oils. Significantly less acrylamide was produced in saturated animal fat than in unsaturated cooking oil, with 366 ng/g in lard and 211 ng/g in ghee versus 2447 ng/g in soy oil, followed by palm olein with 1442 ng/g.
the American Soybean Association (ASA) has been working with National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), American Farm Bureau Federation (AFBF), National Association of Wheat Growers (NAWG) and other commodity organizations to address discrepancies in county yields and payments under the Agricultural Risk Coverage program’s county option (ARC-CO).
These discrepancies came to light last October, when payments were made for 2014 crops, the first year under the Agricultural Act of 2014 (AA-14), also known as the farm bill. The most notable differences were in corn yields and payments in several counties in North Dakota. Additional concerns have been raised by corn producers in South Dakota and Colorado.
There is evidence that the number of affected counties may be more significant for the 2015 corn crop, for which payments will be made in October 2016. We have requested county yield data for the 2014 and 2015 soybean and wheat crops, but the problem to date appears to focus on corn. However, any unresolved problem for one crop will raise concerns about the viability of the ARC-CO program as a whole, and should be addressed as soon as possible.
The cause of the problem is the “cascade policy” for establishing county yields adopted by the Farm Service Agency (FSA) after AA-14 was enacted. Currently, FSA requires that a county’s published National Agriculture Statistics Service (NASS) yield be used, which requires that at least 30 producer surveys be returned or that the returned surveys represent at least 25 percent of a county’s harvested acreage for the crop. If one of these conditions isn’t met, the county’s Risk Management Agency (RMA) yield is used. Since RMA yields are often higher than NASS yields, payments to producers in RMA counties can be significantly lower than payments to producers in counties with NASS yields.
Since there is no legislative requirement or guidance for this policy, FSA is able to change it to provide more consistent yields and payments between counties in the same state. An alternative approach proposed by the North Dakota Corn Growers Association would blend NASS yields in adjacent or contiguous counties to establish yields in counties that don’t meet either of the requirements for a published NASS yield. In cases where there are no contiguous counties, the FSA State Committee would use NASS yields in comparable counties.
Promoting sustainable agriculture requires a renewed focus on innovation and investment in research, technology and capacity development, FAO Director General José Graziano da Silva said at a meeting of agriculture ministers of the G20 in China.
"ICT helps in the monitoring of crop growth, utilization of new techniques, field management and harvests,” the FAO Director-General stressed, adding that it has also become an essential tool for improving people’s livelihoods and welfare while advancing social justice and ensure equal access to opportunities, particularly in rural areas.
Telecommunication tools have the potential to provide Internet access for millions of people and connect farmers with digital agriculture. This includes the use of mobile phones to report animal disease outbreaks, which is one area FAO has been supporting in recent years.
Among the innovative ways FAO is using ICT, Graziano da Silva highlighted a new partnership with Google, whose satellite data and processing power will usher in an unprecedented level of environmental literacy, especially on forestry and fisheries, he said.
The partnership is part of a larger digital strategy FAO is developing to integrate a wide range of technologies, ranging from satellite data to mobile phones and social platforms, with the agency’s work to support the most vulnerable with access to information and bottom-up learning.
“We have to bear in mind that small farmers in developing countries are often constrained in their access to inputs, technology, and markets. In order to ensure that farmers fully leverage the ICT opportunities, it is essential to provide digital tailored access, foster capacity development and facilitate the exchange of experiences,” he said.
In a communiqué released at the end of the meeting, ministers affirmed the importance of ICT in agriculture, calling it “essential to human, social and economic development,” and stressing “the potential to reach farmers --including smallholders and family farmers-- with timely and accessible content on markets, sustainable and efficient farming practices and new technologies.”
The FAO Director General highlighted joint work between FAO and G20 countries on such projects as the Agricultural Market Information System (AMIS), the Tropical Agriculture Platform (TAP) and the G20 Technical Platform for the Measurement and Reduction of Food Loss and Waste.
He also underlined the ongoing international efforts to address Antimicrobial Resistance in partnership with the World Health Organization and the World Organization for Animal Health and called on G20 countries to support FAO in this endeavour.
The Organic Trade Association has released conclusive research linking economic health at the county level to organic agriculture, and shows that organic food and crop production–and the business activities accompanying organic agriculture–creates real and long-lasting regional economic opportunities.
The recently completed White Paper, titled “U.S. Organic Hotspots and their Benefit to Local Economies,” was prepared for the Organic Trade Association (OTA) by Penn State Agricultural Economist Dr. Edward Jaenicke. It finds organic hotspots–counties with high levels of organic agricultural activity whose neighboring counties also have high organic activity–boost median household incomes by an average of $2,000 and reduce poverty levels by an average of 1.3 percentage points.
It was also found that organic activity has a greater beneficial economic effect than that of general agriculture activity, and even more of a positive impact than some major anti-poverty programs at a county level, in the U.S.
The White Paper summarizes and discusses three research papers that investigate organic agriculture hotspots in the U.S. and systematically assesses the impact of organic agriculture on local economies. It identifies 225 counties across the United States as organic hotspots, then looks at how these organic hotspots impact two key county-level economic indicators: the county poverty rate and median household income.
The study found:
Counties within organic hotspots have lower poverty rates and higher median annual household incomes. On average, county poverty rates drop by 1.3 percentage points, and median income rises by over $2,000 in organic hotspots. The same beneficial results are not found for general agricultural hotspots. .
Outreach and knowledge transfer are critical in creating organic hotspots. The prevalence of outreach services by organic certifiers is found to play one of the strongest roles in organic hotspot formation. .
Organic agriculture can be used as an economic development tool. Policymakers at all levels — local, state and national — have a proven economic reason to support organic agriculture and to create more economy-stimulating organic hotspots..
A total of 120 Listeria monocytogenes isolates (107 from foods and 13 from humans) in Shanghai, China, were characterized by serogroup typing and virulence genes detection with PCR, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and molecular subtyping using pulsed-field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Isolates belonged to three L. monocytogenes serogroups, 1/2c, 3c (n = 47, 39.1%) was the most prevalent, followed by 1/2a, 3a (n = 44, 36.7%) and 1/2b, 3b, 7 (n = 29, 24.2%). Although the isolates were all susceptible to most antibiotics tested, 13 isolates were resistant to ceftriaxone and seven to tetracycline. None of the isolates were resistant to multiple antibiotics. The tet (M) genes were detected among tetracycline-resistant isolates. The isolates all harbored virulence genes hly, prfA, plcA, plcB, inlA, inlB, inlI; 116 isolates (96.7%) were positive for inlC; 78 (65.0%) for inlG; 119 (99.2%) for inlJ; 8 (6.67%) for llsX. A total of 74 distinct patterns were generated for the 119 isolates tested using ApaI and AscI with Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Three clinical isolates shared the same PFGE patterns with retail meet (chicken, duck, and beef) isolates. These findings indicated that food of animal origin likely serve as a major vehicle in transmitting human listeriosis in Shanghai. Active surveillance for L. monocytogenes is needed for better understanding the epidemiology of the pathogen, and for effective control and prevention of human listeriosis.
PHILADELPHIA, June 2, 2016 – Today U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition and Consumer Services Kevin Concannon announced a new publication that will help enhance access to healthy foods for residents of low-income neighborhoods. The Healthy Corner Stores Guide provides information, strategies, and resources for organizations interested in making healthy foods and beverages available in corner stores within their communities.
“USDA is committed to encouraging neighborhood stores to stock and sell healthier food and beverage items,” said Concannon. “Families in low-income areas rely on corner stores because their communities often lack supermarkets, farmers markets, or stores where they can buy fresh produce and other healthy foods.”
Concannon made this announcement at Good Neighbor Mini Market, which carries a variety of groceries and fresh produce in Philadelphia, PA. Corner stores like these, often referred to as convenience stores or bodegas , are small-scale stores that may have a more limited selection of food and products. The Good Neighbor Mini Market has been enrolled in The Food Trust’s Healthy Corner Store Network since July 2010. The network connects community members, nonprofits, local government, funders, and other advocates across the country to share resources and best practices on the latest strategies for healthy food retail in small stores.
The Good Neighbor Mini Market has more than quadrupled its fresh produce selection since joining the Healthy Corner Store Network. It has tripled the low-sodium and low-sugar canned vegetable and fruit inventory and introduced a wide variety of healthy snacks. Research conducted by Tulane University shows that the amount of shelf space dedicated to fruits and vegetables at corner stores like this one is positively associated with increased consumption of these healthier food choices among nearby residents.
The Healthy Corner Stores Guide provides strategies for marketing healthier product options, sourcing healthy food and beverages, and making changes to the way food and beverage items are displayed. For example, stores could display healthier items at eye-level, near checkout counters, or by entryways, so they are visible when customers first enter the store. The guide also describes how to engage owners and community members through nutrition education and program incentives. One great example is the New York City “Adopt a Bodega” program, which gives stores a star rating based on its achievements.
Encouraging and supporting the availability of healthier food and beverage items for all Americans is an important goal for USDA. The Healthy Corner Stores Guide is the latest initiative in ongoing efforts to promote healthy food and lifestyle choices by Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) recipients and residents of low-income communities. Others include:
A proposed rule to improve the range of healthy food choices SNAP-authorized retailers must stock..
Making funds available that help participants in SNAP increase their purchases of fruits and vegetables..
Working to increase SNAP access at roadside farm stands, farmers markets, and directly from local farmers..
The final rule for SNAP education (SNAP-Ed) implemented in 2013, which authorized the promotion of physical activity as part of nutrition education and obesity prevention. .
Over the past seven years, USDA has enhanced federal nutrition programs, providing a critical safety net for millions of American children and families. By expanding access to nutritious foods and increasing awareness about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle, USDA programs have made a real difference in the lives of many, promising a brighter, healthier future for our nation.
USDA's Food and Nutrition Service administers 15 nutrition assistance programs. In addition to the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program, these programs include the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children, the National School Lunch Program, and the Summer Food Service Program which together comprise America's nutrition safety net. For more information, visit www.fns.usda.gov.
Background: Estrogen deficiency in women and high-saturated fat, high-sucrose (HFS) diets have both been recognized as risk factors for metabolic syndrome. Studies on the combined actions of these 2 detrimental factors on the bone in females are limited.
Objective: We sought to determine the interactive actions of estrogen deficiency and an HFS diet on bone properties and to investigate the underlying mechanisms.
Methods: Six-month-old Sprague Dawley sham or ovariectomized (OVX) rats were pair fed the same amount of either a low-saturated-fat, low-sucrose (LFS) diet (13% fat calories; 15% sucrose calories) or an HFS diet (42% fat calories; 30% sucrose calories) for 12 wk. Blood, liver, and bone were collected for correspondent parameters measurement.
Results: Ovariectomy decreased bone mineral density in the tibia head (TH) by 62% and the femoral end (FE) by 49% (P < 0.0001). The HFS diet aggravated bone loss in OVX rats by an additional 41% in the TH and 37% in the FE (P < 0.05). Bone loss in the HFS-OVX rats was accompanied by increased urinary deoxypyridinoline concentrations by 28% (P < 0.05). The HFS diet induced cathepsin K by 145% but reduced osteoprotegerin mRNA expression at the FE of the HFS-sham rats by 71% (P < 0.05). Ovariectomy significantly increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ mRNA expression by 136% and 170% at the FE of the LFS- and HFS-OVX rats, respectively (P < 0.05). The HFS diet aggravated ovariectomy-induced lipid deposition and oxidative stress (OS) in rat livers (P < 0.05). Trabecular bone mineral density at the FE was negatively correlated with rat liver malondialdehyde concentrations (R2 = 0.39; P < 0.01).
Conclusions: The detrimental actions of the HFS diet and ovariectomy on bone properties in rats occurred mainly in cancellous bones and were characterized by a high degree of bone resorption and alterations in OS.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides nutrition assistance to Tribal communities through the Food Distribution Program on Indian Reservations (FDPIR). The last nationally representative study of FDPIR was based on 1989 data. Since that time, there have been many changes in FDPIR affecting eligibility, warehouse operations and distribution, customer service, and improvements in the types and variety of products offered in the food package. This report provides an update of FDPIR participant characteristics and program operations, based on a nationally representative sample of participants and sites.
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 844/2012 (hereinafter referred to as ‘the Regulation’) lays down the procedure for the renewal of the approval of active substances submitted under Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009. The list of those substances is established in Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) No 686/2012. 4-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB) is one of the active substances listed in Regulation (EU) No 686/2012.
In accordance with Article 1 of the Regulation, the rapporteur Member State (RMS), Belgium, and co-rapporteur Member State (co-RMS), Greece, received an application from Nufarm UK Limited for the renewal of approval of the active substance 2,4-DB. Complying with Article 8 of the Regulation, the RMS checked the completeness of the dossier and informed the applicant, the co-RMS (Greece), the European Commission and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) about the admissibility.
The RMS provided its initial evaluation of the dossier on 2,4-DB in the renewal assessment report (RAR), which was received by EFSA on 3 June 2015. In accordance with Article 12 of the Regulation, EFSA distributed the RAR to the Member States and the applicant, Nufarm UK Limited, for comments on 30 June 2015. EFSA also provided comments. In addition, EFSA conducted a public consultation on the RAR. EFSA collated and forwarded all comments received to the European Commission on 31 August 2015.
Following consideration of the comments received on the RAR, it was concluded that additional information should be requested from the applicant and that EFSA should conduct an expert consultation in the areas of mammalian toxicology, residues and ecotoxicology.
In accordance with Article 13(1) of the Regulation, EFSA should adopt a conclusion on whether 2,4-DB can be expected to meet the approval criteria provided for in Article 4 of Regulation (EC) No 1107/2009 of the European Parliament and of the Council.
The conclusions laid down in this report were reached on the basis of the evaluation of the representative uses of 2,4-DB as a herbicide on winter and spring barley, wheat and oats, and on legumes (lucerne and clover), as proposed by the applicant. Full details of the representative uses can be found in Appendix A of this report.
The use of 2,4-DB according to the representative uses proposed at the European Union (EU) level results in a sufficient herbicidal efficacy against the target weeds.
A data gap was identified for an appropriate search of the scientific peer-reviewed open literature on the active substance and its relevant metabolites, including submission of full papers of the publications retrieved.
There are no data gaps for the section identity, physical–chemical properties of 2,4-DB or the representative formulation; however, a data gap was identified for additional validation data for the method for body fluids.
Regarding the mammalian toxicology area, data gaps were identified for the identification of the analytical methods used in each toxicity studies, interspecies comparative in vitro metabolism including human material, phototoxicity and photomutagenicity under relevant ultraviolet B (UVB) wavelength (although it is acknowledged that there is no validated test method currently available for this range of wavelength), dermal absorption study with the representative formulation, and clarification of the genotoxic potential of 2,4-DCP and of its toxicological profile relevant to consumer exposure. No critical areas of concern were identified.
In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the evaluating Member State (EMS), Austria, compiled an application to modify the existing maximum residue level (MRL) for the active substance fluazifop-P in pumpkin seeds. To accommodate for the intended use of fluazifop-P, Austria proposed to set the MRL to the value of 5 mg/kg. Austria drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on 5 February 2016.
EFSA bases its assessment on the evaluation report submitted by the EMS, the draft assessment report (DAR) and its additional reports prepared under Council Directive 91/414/EEC, the revised Commission review report, the conclusions on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment (RA) of the active substance fluazifop-P as well as previous EFSA reasoned opinions of which one opinion on the review of existing MRLs according to Article 12 (hereafter, Article 12 MRL review).
The toxicological profile of fluazifop-P was assessed in the framework of the peer review under Directive 91/414/EEC and the data were sufficient to derive an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.01 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day and an acute reference dose (ARfD) of 0.017 mg/kg bw.
The metabolism in primary crops has been studied in fruit, leafy, root and oilseeds/pulses crop groups following foliar applications and the residue definition (RD) for enforcement and RA were established as ‘sum of all constituent isomers of fluazifop, its esters and its conjugates expressed as fluazifop (sum of isomers)’. For the use on pumpkin seed, EFSA concludes that the metabolism of fluazifop-P has been sufficiently addressed and that the RDs derived are applicable.
EFSA concludes that the submitted supervised residue trials are sufficient to derive an MRL proposal of 5 mg/kg on pumpkin seeds. Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to monitor fluazifop-P residues on the commodity under consideration at the validated limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01–0.05 mg/kg.
Processing studies were not submitted and are not required with regard to the low contribution of pumpkin seeds to the consumer intake. However, during the peer review several processing factors were derived for rapeseed that can be extrapolated to pumpkin seed.
The occurrence of fluazifop-P residues in rotational crops was investigated in the framework of the peer review and of the Article 12 MRL review. Based on the available information, it was concluded that the RD set for primary crops is applicable to rotational crops and that significant residue levels are unlikely to occur in succeeding crops, provided that the compound is used according to the proposed good agricultural practice (GAP). Residues of fluazifop-P in commodities of animal origin were not assessed as pumpkin seeds are not fed to livestock.
The consumer RA was performed with revision 2 of the EFSA Pesticide Residues Intake Model (PRIMo). No long-term or acute consumer intake concerns were identified. For fluazifop-P, the highest estimated chronic intake accounted for 42% of the ADI (World Health Organization (WHO) Cluster E). The contribution of residues in the crops under consideration to the total consumer exposure is insignificant (lower than 0.1% of the ADI) and the maximum acute exposure was calculated to be 12% of the ARfD.
EFSA concludes that the proposed use of fluazifop-P on pumpkin seeds will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference values and therefore is unlikely to pose a health risk to consumers.
In accordance with Article 6 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, the evaluating Member State (EMS) Greece received an application from Syngenta Switzerland to modify the existing maximum residue levels (MRL) for the active substance azoxystrobin in chervil, rhubarb, linseed, safflower and borage seeds. Greece drafted an evaluation report in accordance with Article 8 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005, which was submitted to the European Commission and forwarded to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) on 26 November 2015.
EFSA bases its assessment on the evaluation report submitted by the EMS, the draft assessment report (DAR) prepared under Directive 91/414/EEC, the conclusions on the peer review of the pesticide risk assessment as well as previous reasoned opinions on the review of existing MRLs according to Article 12 (hereafter Article 12 MRL review) or according to Article 10 of Regulation (EC) No 396/2005.
The toxicological profile of azoxystrobin was assessed in the framework of the peer review under Directive 91/414/EEC and the data were sufficient to derive an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 0.2 mg/kg body weight (bw) per day. No acute reference dose (ARfD) was deemed necessary.
The metabolism of azoxystrobin in primary crops was investigated in the fruit, cereal/grass and pulses/oilseeds crop groups following foliar applications and the residue definition for enforcement and risk assessment were established as azoxystrobin. For the crops under consideration, EFSA concludes that the metabolism of azoxystrobin has been sufficiently addressed and that the residue definitions derived are applicable.
EFSA concludes that the submitted supervised residue trials are sufficient to derive a MRL proposal of 0.4 mg/kg on linseed, safflower and borage. For chervil, the submitted trials indicate no need to modify the existing MRL, while for rhubarb, the submitted residue trials do not support the intended good agricultural practice (GAP). Adequate analytical enforcement methods are available to monitor the residues of azoxystrobin in crops under consideration at the validated limit of quantification (LOQ) of 0.01 mg/kg.
Studies investigating the magnitude of azoxystrobin residues in processed commodities were not submitted and are not required, as the contribution of the residues in crops under consideration to the total theoretical maximum daily intake (TMDI) is below 10% of the ADI.
The occurrence of azoxystrobin residues in rotational crops was investigated in the framework of the peer review. On the basis of the available information, it was concluded that significant residue levels are unlikely to occur in rotational crops provided that the compound is used on the crops under consideration according to the proposed GAP.
The contribution of azoxystrobin residues in linseed, safflower and borage to the overall dietary livestock burden is insignificant. Thus, EFSA concludes that an amendment to the MRLs for the products of animal origin is unnecessary.
The consumer risk assessment was performed with revision 2 of the EFSA Pesticide Residues Intake Model (PRIMo). No long-term or acute consumer intake concerns were identified. For azoxystrobin, the highest estimated chronic intake accounted for 21% of the ADI (NL child). The contribution of residues in the crops under consideration to the total consumer exposure is insignificant (lower than 0.1% of the ADI).
EFSA concludes that the intended use of azoxystrobin on chervil, linseed, safflower and borage will not result in a consumer exposure exceeding the toxicological reference value and therefore is unlikely to pose a concern for public health. EFSA proposes to amend the existing MRLs as reported in the following summary table.
This study had the major objective of evaluating the food safety knowledge, attitudes and practices of consumers and vendors of street foods in Ho Chi Minh City (MCMC), Vietnam. There were three main surveys performed in this study. A total of 120 consumers and 40 street food vendors from four districts [Binh Thanh (BT), Thu Duc (TD), district 3 (D3) and district 8 (D8)] in HCMC contributed to the study on a voluntary basis. The surveyed consumers had adequate levels of food safety knowledge and attitudes. No significant difference (p > 0.05) occurred between the food safety knowledge levels of the consumers on the basis of gender. However, significant differences (p < 0.05) occurred on the basis of age, education level, food safety training status and location. In contrast, the street vendors had poor food safety knowledge and attitude levels. No significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed in the food safety knowledge levels of the vendors on the basis of gender and age. However, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found on the basis of food safety training status and education level. It was also noted that the vast majority (95%) of the vendors had not received any food safety training. With regards to the practices, it was determined that 52.5% of the vending sites were open air stands without any protection from the sun, wind and dust. 52.5% the vending stalls had no direct access to potable water, while 47.5% did not have adequate hand washing facilities and a further 30% lacked proper waste water and food disposal facilities. In addition, 52.5% of the vendors did not separate raw, partially cooked food and cooked food products. These findings highlighted that street food vendors in HCMC generally have poor food handling practices and most are operating under unhygienic conditions. These results should provide the Vietnamese government with even more reasons to increase their current efforts to improve the safety of street foods and food safety awareness of the consumers.
In 2012, the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics (Academy) introduced their Future of Food Initiative. This initiative aims to address domestic and global food and nutrition security, as well as consumers’ interest in a safe and healthy food supply, through education, communication, and research. This initiative has provided the Academy with opportunities for collaboration with other organizations concerned about food security, including Feeding America (FA), a leading domestic hunger relief organization supporting a network of over 200 food banks, annually serving 46.5 million people facing food insecurity.
The purpose of the National summary report is to provide additional, complementary information insupport of the national data and information already provided in the XML ?le in line with the StandardSample Description (SSD) data model, such as information that is not be held by laboratoriescompiling the XML ?le (e.g. the possible reasons and the actions taken in case of samplesnon-compliant with the EU MRL).
This document should report information concerning sample of both plant and animal origin. Ifdifferent national bodies are responsible for pesticide residue control in the two sample matrices it isthe responsibility of the national competent authorities to co-ordinate at national level the collectionand compilation of the information to be reported in this document.