Scope and Approach
This review provides an up-to-date description of the dominant pathways/genes involved in amino acid metabolism in gut bacteria, and provides an inventory of metabolic intermediates derived from bacterial protein fermentation that may affect human health. Advances in understanding bacterial protein fermentation pathways and metabolites generated at a global level via the implementation of ‘omics’ technologies are reviewed. Finally, the impact of dietary protein intake and high-protein diets on human health is discussed.
Key Findings and Conclusions
The intestinal microbiota is able to synthesize amino acids, but the net result of amino acid production and utilization, according to dietary patterns still needs to be determined. The amount of ingested dietary protein appears to modify both the diversity and composition of the intestinal microbiota as well as the luminal environment of the intestinal epithelium and peripheral tissues. The understanding of the consequences of such changes on the host physiology and pathophysiology is still in an early stage but major progress is expected in the near future with the investigation of host-microbe omics profiles from well-controlled human intervention studies.
There is a growing view that certain foods, particularly those high in refined sugars and fats, are addictive and that some forms of obesity can usefully be treated as a food addiction. This perspective is supported by a growing body of neuroscience research demonstrating that the chronic consumption of energy-dense foods causes changes in the brain's reward pathway that are central to the development and maintenance of drug addiction. Obese and overweight individuals also display patterns of eating behavior that resemble the ways in which addicted individuals consume drugs. We critically review the evidence that some forms of obesity or overeating could be considered a food addiction and argue that the use of food addiction as a diagnostic category is premature. We also examine some of the potential positive and negative clinical, social, and public policy implications of describing obesity as a food addiction that require further investigation. .
When the Minister for Environment and Food on 26 August hosts the international food summit ’Better Food for More People’ at the Danish Parliament Christiansborg it will be attended by politicians, CEO’s and frontrunners from all over the world. The summit will take place the same week Copenhagen Cooking and Food Festival is taking place in Copenhagen, where thousands of ‘foodies’ are visiting the city.
- I am looking forward to welcoming the invites who are attending from different parts of the world. They are all committed and have accepted the challenge to ensure better food for more people in the cities. The cities are growing and thereby are putting pressure on and challenging not only the demand for food safety, reduction of food waste and the conversation we are having about food. But also strengthens the demand for good, tasty, traditional food and food that is telling a story. With the food summit we intend to create a Davos within food in Copenhagen, says Esben Lunde Larsen.
Gastronomy is part of the toolbox.
As the cities grow, new global trends that affect the production of food emerge. Focus is shifting from the uniform production that depends on stability of taste, colors and consistency to a more diverse expressed production with individual choices, diversity and eating experiences.
Four themes will evaluate gastronomy as a key factor in new food-solutions: 1) new information that can ensure urban people who do not live close to where food is produced sufficient and useful knowledge about the food they eat, 2) more safe food that can avoid illness and ensure close cooperation between the industry and the food safety authorities, 3) the impacts of the gastronomy when creating better food for more people whether they are eating outside or at home and 4) the limitation of food waste through an effective use of the resources.
At the summit the term “The Big Kitchen” is introduced as a metaphor for all the food which is achieved, prepared and served in the city kitchens - at restaurants, workplaces, kindergartens, schools, hospitals, industries, grocery stores and private homes – where gastronomy will be able to function as a driver in order to ensure better food for more people.
Strong profiles .
Approx. 100 participants will be attending the the minister’s summit. The people attending have very different qualifications and have all committed themselves to the summit agenda: Better Food for More People.
From the political scene vice ministers and mayors, for instance Kevin Concannon, Under Secretary for Food, Nutrition, and Consumer Services at the US Department of Agriculture and City councillor for Courbevoie, Paris, Arash Derambash.
From the business world Luca Mignini, President for Global Biscuits and Snacks from Campbell Soup Company and Peder Tuborgh, CEO at Arla Foods will attend the summit.
Several of the gastronomic frontrunners are coming a long way, for instance participants from China, Dong Zhenxiang, who is head chef and founder of a big chain of restaurants in Beijing. Attending from China is also Yoyo Sun who has a food blog with more than 5 million followers.
- With this spectrum of committed politicians, business leaders, chefs and bloggers I hope that we will identify a number of recommendations and actions across national practices and good examples that will ensure better food in the cities. It is also my ambition that we commit each other to initiate actions at the end of the summit so that words are brought into action, Esben Lunde Larsen says.
Published 13. July 2016
The level of food safety in Denmark is high. This is confirmed by thousands of samples of meat, eggs, milk and honey which are free from harmful residues of veterinary medicines.
A total of 12,500 laboratory samples from farm animals, milk, eggs and honey have been analyzed in 2015, and confirm that Danish meat and dairy products as well as eggs and honey are free from harmful residues of veterinary medicines.
- I am pleased to say that consumers can safely drink a glass of Danish milk or enjoy a Danish pork chop without worrying about harmful residues of medicines. It is important for the trust in our products, that the farming industry live by the rules in this matter. The 2015 results underline our reputation as a country with a high level of food safety, says Danish Minister for Environment and Food, Esben Lunde Larsen.
The Danish Veterinary and Food Administration found no harmful residues of hormones, antibiotics or other medicines in the samples. Two samples contained mycotoxins originating from the feed fed to the animals in question.
All results have been reported to the EU Commission.
The original guidance document was published in 2007 and first updated in 2011. Since then EFSA’s Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA Panel). The revised guidance aims to assist applicants in preparing and presenting their applications for authorisation of health claims on food. It details the requirements that applicants need to meet and introduces a common format to assist them in the preparation of a well-structured application dossier. The changes aim to increase the efficiency and consistency of the application process.
Two different strategies for investigating individual differences among consumers in choice experiments using the Mixed Logit Model are compared. The study is based on a consumer study of iced coffees in Norway. Consumers (n=102) performed a choice task of twenty different iced coffee profiles varying in coffee type, production origin, calorie content and price following an orthogonal design. Consumer attributes, such as socio-demographics, attitudes and habits, were also collected. Choice data were first analyzed using the Mixed Logit Model and then two different approaches were adopted for investigating consumer attributes. The first strategy, called one-step strategy, includes the consumer attributes directly in the Mixed Logit Model. The second strategy, called multi-step strategy, combines different methods of analysis such as Mixed Logit Model based on the design factors only, followed by Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares regression to study consumer attributes. The two approaches are compared in terms of data analysis methodologies, outcomes, practical issues, user friendliness, and interpretation. Overall, we think the multi-step strategy is the one to be preferred in most practical applications because of its flexibility and stronger exploratory capabilities.
The OECD-FAO Agricultural Outlook 2016-2025, published today, projects inflation-adjusted agricultural commodity prices will remain relatively flat overall in the coming decade. However, livestock prices are expected to rise relative to those for crops.
As incomes improve, especially in emerging economies, demand for meat, fish and poultry will demonstrate strong growth. This creates additional demand for feed, particularly from coarse grains and protein meals, causing their prices to rise prices relative to food staples such as wheat and rice.
Globally, the increased demand for food and feed for a growing and more affluent population is projected to be mostly met through productivity gains. Yield improvements are expected to account for about 80 percent of the increase in crop output.
According to baseline analysis made in the Outlook, under a "business as usual" scenario -- in which agricultural productivity grows at the current trend rate and no major action is taken to reduce hunger -- projected growth in food availability would result in a reduction in the number of undernourished people in the world from around 800 million now to under 650 million in 2025.
The analysis indicates that in sub-Saharan Africa the rate of undernourishment would decline an estimated 23 to 19 percent -- but because of rapid population growth the region would still account for a rising share of the world's population suffering from hunger.
This implies that without decisive steps to move away from business-as-usual, hunger would not be eradicated by 2030 - the global target recently adopted by the international community - and that decisive action is needed.
Focus on sub-Saharan Africa
This year's Outlook includes a special focus on the prospects and challenges facing agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa.
The rise of the middle class, rapid urbanisation, as well as increased commercial interest in Africa's resources and farmland, will all shape the sector's development. As the region faces rapid population growth, agriculture will continue to be the single largest source of employment for many young people.
The Outlook foresees a further increase of food imports into sub-Saharan Africa, because demand for food is expected to grow at more than 3 percent over the coming decade, while total agricultural production is projected to rise by only 2.6 percent a year, despite improvement in productivity.
Policymakers will need to take steps to further boost productivity, including promoting the faster adoption of technology, improving access to markets, and better integrating smallholder producers into value chains.
Key players dominate food trade
The Agricultural Outlook says that the bulk of all commodity exports will continue to originate in just a few countries.
Imports, however, will be far less concentrated among countries, although China is projected to remain a critical market for some commodities, in particular soybeans. OECD and FAO emphasise the importance of well-functioning markets in enabling food to flow from surplus to deficit regions and improving food security.
At the Outlook's launch in Rome, OECD Secretary General Angel Gurría said: "Although we are now witnessing a period of lower agricultural prices, we need to remain alert as changes in markets can take place rapidly.The key priority for governments in the current context is to implement policies that will increase agricultural productivity in a coherent and sustainable way. Getting our agricultural policies right is critical to end hunger and undernourishment in the decades to come."
"Significant production growth is needed to meet the expanding demand for food, feed and raw products for industrial uses, and all of these have to be done in a sustainable way," said FAO Director-General José Graziano da Silva. "We are optimistic that most of that future demand for agricultural commodities will be mainly met through productivity gains rather than expansion of crop area or livestock herds," he added.
Other findings from the report include:
-Global agricultural trade is expected to grow by 1.8% per annum in volume during the next ten years, compared to 4.3 percent per year over the past decade.
-Food consumer prices are expected to be less volatile than agricultural producer prices over the coming decade.
-In developing countries, human sugar consumption is expected to rise by 15 percent per capita and that of dairy products by 20 percent over the projection period.
-After stronger gains in recent years, crop production is projected to increase at around 1.5 percent a year globally.
-In South and East Asia, agricultural output is expected to expand by 20 percent over the next decade.
-In Latin America, soybean cultivation is projected to drive most of the estimated 24 percent increase in crop area over the next 10 years.
A rapid, robust, and economical method to detect hailstorm-damaged olive fruit (Olea europaea L.) would benefit both consumers and producers of olives and olive oil. Here, the feasibility of using Near-Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for olive fruit sorting (cv. Canino) into hailstorm-damaged and undamaged classes is demonstrated. Features selected from the entire spectra by the genetic algorithm (two to six features per model) were input to Linear Discriminant Analysis, Quadratic Discriminant Analysis and k-Nearest Neighbor routines to develop models to classify olive fruit. Spectral pretreatment and feature selection were optimized through an iterative routine developed in R statistical software. Each model was evaluated based on false positive (α-error), false negative (β-error) and total error rates. The most accurate models yielded total error rates of less than five percent. The optimal features corresponded to R[1320 nm], R[∼1460 nm], R[∼1650 nm], R[∼1920 nm], R[∼2080 nm], R[∼2200 nm] and R[∼2220 nm], where R[x] represents the reflectance of light from the sample at a wavelength of x nm. The results indicate that single-point NIR spectroscopy is a feasible basis for hailstorm damage detection in olive fruit with the potential to allow on-line implementation on milling production lines.
ASA ramped up its call for approval of three outstanding soybean traits by the European Union this week, saying that the tools are a critical part of the industry’s ongoing quest to meet sustainability and consumer demand goals, and that continued delays pose serious issues both for farmers and industry.
In a letter to European Commissioner Vytenis Andriukaitis Tuesday, ASA expressed deep concern with the EU’s delayed authorization of three new soybean traits: Monsanto’s dicamba-tolerant RR2Xtend and Vistive Gold high oleic traits, as well as Bayer CropScience’s isoxaflutole-resistant Balance Bean trait. All three traits received positive opinions from the European Food Safety Authority in May and June of last year, and have awaited approval for five months following an Appeals Committee ruling in January.
“The Commission’s lack of action in providing final authorization for these soy events has already caused unnecessary uncertainty, disruption and cost in the agricultural supply chain. Immediate authorization by the European Commission is needed to avoid substantial additional unnecessary costs and possible disruption to the essential supply of feedstocks needed by the EU’s livestock, poultry and feed industries, which are more than 70 percent dependent on imports of vegetable protein,” the letter stated.
ASA also cited repeated assurances over the course of several months from EU officials that approval of the three traits was imminent as providing a false sense of security for farmers looking to utilize the traits to meet sustainability goals and comply with the food industry’s ongoing move away from trans fats in the American marketplace.
“As the threat of resistant weeds continues to move across soybean country, and the specter of increased input costs coupled with a down farm economy looms over so many soybean farmers, we need more options in the marketplace. We are not benefited by new products that are stuck in a malfunctioning approvals pipeline,” said ASA President Richard Wilkins, a farmer from Greenwood, Del. “Add to that the ability of high-oleic soy to help answer the growing market for cooking oils free of trans fats, and you see the real value in these three traits.
“The European Commission must abide by the timelines set out in in its own regulations, as well as its obligations under the World Trade Organization, and give these traits the approvals that it has said are forthcoming,” Wilkins added.
WASHINGTON, June 15, 2016 — The Food Research & Action Center (FRAC) urged Congress today to join anti-hunger advocates across the country in opposing an ill-advised block grant provision in “The Improving Child Nutrition and Education Act of 2016 (H.R. 5003).”
“Block grants are bad policy,” said Jim Weill, president of FRAC. “They would undermine the years of progress made against child hunger, and would deny millions of children the nutrition they need for their healthy growth and learning. It is imperative we don’t go down this dangerous path.”
The proposed three–state block grant contained in the bill would severely weaken the highly effective school nutrition programs by:
Limiting the number of low-income children who can access the programs. Currently, every low-income child is eligible for free or reduced-price school meals. Block granting would allow states to set their own eligibility rules, which would leave many vulnerable children falling through the cracks. In addition, states would no longer have to adhere to the federal rules for developing and collecting school meals applications. These rules ensure that the process supports access to school meals and also ensures the children’s civil rights are being met..
Limiting the number of meals provided. It is critical for low-income children to have access to nutritious meals all day, every day. There is no requirement that block granted programs operate year-round, even though the block grant includes programs that provide meals during both the school year and summer vacation..
Reducing the quality of meals served. Research shows that the current school nutrition standards improve the school nutrition environment and student outcomes. Block granting would only reverse this progress because meals would no longer have to meet consistent standards, and there would be no federal oversight..
Eliminating the programs’ ability to respond to increased need. Under block grants, funding would not increase if there is an economic crisis resulting in more children living in households that are struggling to put food on the table or if there is an increase in the state’s population. Additionally, states would not receive the annual reimbursement rate adjustments that are based upon inflation in food prices, further eroding the state’s resources each year to provide low-income children a nutritious school breakfast and lunch..
Cutting funding. The history of federal block grants is one of continued cuts in funding, which, in this case, would only undermine the financial viability of the school nutrition programs. In addition to cutting funding for school nutrition programs, there is no oversight as to if/how the money is being spent on these nutrition programs..
The current structure of the child nutrition programs is based upon a shared, bipartisan commitment to ensure the health and well-being of all children.
“Sadly, the block grant proposal contained in the House bill would eliminate the nation’s bi-partisan commitment to ensure our nation’s children do not go hungry,” concluded Weill.
WASHINGTON, June 14, 2016 – After three years of significant growth, national participation in the Summer Nutrition Programs plateaued last summer, according to the Food Research & Action Center’s annual Hunger Doesn’t Take a Vacation report (pdf) released today. During July 2015, the programs served nearly 3.2 million low-income children across the country, a modest increase of 11,000 participants from July 2014. The Child Nutrition Reauthorization currently being considered by Congress provides an important opportunity to invest in the Summer Nutrition Programs so that more children return to school in the fall, well-nourished and ready to learn.
“Status quo is not good enough when it comes to the well-being of our nation’s children,” said FRAC President Jim Weill. “More must be done to expand access to summer meals if we are to close the hunger gap and reduce the summer ‘learning slide’ for millions of our nation’s children. Greater investments are needed to make these good programs even better. ”
The report measures the success of Summer Nutrition Programs at the national and state levels both in absolute numbers and by comparing the number of children receiving summer meals to the number of low-income children receiving school lunch during the regular school year. By that measure, less than one in six children (15.8:100) who needed summer nutrition received it in 2015.
If every state had reached the goal of 40 children participating in Summer Nutrition in July 2015 for every 100 receiving free or reduced-price lunch during the 2014–2015 school year, an additional 4.9 million children would have been fed each day, and states would have collected an additional $384 million in child nutrition funding in July alone (assuming the programs operated 22 weekdays).
The Summer Nutrition Programs, which include the Summer Food Service Program and the National School Lunch Program over the summer period, provide free meals at participating summer sites at schools, parks, other public agencies, and nonprofits for children under 18. Not only do children benefit from the free meals, but they also benefit from the enrichment activities that keep them learning and engaged.
Leadership by the U.S. Department of Agriculture has been a key factor in increasing participation in the summer nutrition programs. The agency has prioritized summer meal growth by partnering with national organizations to increase the number of sponsors and sites and by providing hands-on assistance to states. While participation rates varied greatly throughout the country, 29 states saw growth in summer nutrition from 2014–2015 as a result of state agencies and partner organizations intensifying their outreach efforts.
“We’re on the right trajectory, but more must be done,” added Weill. “Working together, we can ensure every child has a hunger-free summer.”
Pressured by a bearish WASDE report and a stronger U.S. dollar, U.S. wheat futures ended the week mixed.
Rain falling on ripening wheat around the world created concern about winter wheat quality and limited CBOT and KCBT losses. CBOT July wheat slipped 2 cents to $4.95/bu, KCBT dropped 5 cents to $4.68/bu and MGEX added 14 cents week-over-week to $5.54/bu. CBOT July corn climbed 5 cents to $4.23/bu and CBOT July soybeans jumped 46 cents to $11.78/bu. CBOT soybeans have climbed for nine straight weeks, the longest such streak since 1973. Since April 8, CBOT soybeans have rallied $2.60/bu.
* Seasonal harvest pressure pushed basis lower this week for Gulf SRW and HRW. Protein premiums for HRW widened this week on the expectation of a high-yielding, lower protein HRW crop. White wheat protein premiums have eroded due to pressure from a more normal production year with adequate moisture. Basis levels for the Pacific Northwest are firmer for the last quarter of 2016 due to planned maintenance closures on the Columbia-Snake River system. Fourth quarter basis for the Gulf is also firmer due to increased competition for elevation capacity from corn and soybeans.
* In its weekly Export Sales Report, USDA reported net sales of 223,800 metric tons (MT) for the 2016/17 marketing year, which began June 1. A total of 1.30 MMT in sales were carried over from the 2015/16 marketing year, which ended May 31. Sales were below trade expectations of 300,000 to 500,000 MT. Total known outstanding sales and accumulated exports of all classes of wheat for the 2016/17 marketing year, through June 2, 2016 were 5.76 million metric tons (MMT), 22 percent higher than last year's year-to-date total of 4.73 MMT. USDA expects 2016/17 U.S. wheat exports to reach 24.5 MMT.
* As of June 6, 91% of U.S. winter wheat had headed according to USDA, which rated 62% of the U.S. winter wheat crop as good to excellent, down one percentage point from the prior week. USDA rated just 8% of the crop as poor or very poor, unchanged from the prior week. USDA reported spring wheat emergence at 96% complete compared to the 5-year average of 78%. USDA rated 79% of the spring wheat crop in good to excellent condition, on par with wheat conditions at the same time last year.
* USDA forecast world wheat production at 731 MMT, up from its May estimate of 727 MMT, but slightly below last year’s record production of 734 MMT. Global trade will slip to 166 MMT, down from an estimated 167 MMT in 2015/16. Global consumption will set a new record for the fourth consecutive year at 716 MMT. U.S. production is expected to reach an estimated 56.5 MMT, pushing U.S. supplies up 9% due to beginning
stocks climbing to 26.7 MMT, up 30% year over year and the largest beginning stocks since 1988/89, if realized. USDA believes U.S. exports will rebound to an estimated 24.5 MMT, up 16% from 2015/16.
A provider of software solutions for accounting, distribution, manufacturing, business intelligence, document management, and customer relationship management, SBS Group is a Microsoft Gold Certified Partner. With 25-plus years of food and process manufacturing industry expertise, SBS has a product portfolio that includes Microsoft Dynamics AX, Dynamics GP, Dynamics NAV, Dynamics CRM, BI 360, Kwik Tag, and Vicinity Manufacturing. SBS Group, sbsgroupusa.com, Booth 3707
Scientific and regulatory consulting firm Burdock Group provides customized compliance solutions supplied by a staff of toxicologists, nutritionists, and food scientists. Two new scientists have recently joined the Burdock team to help support the regulatory and nutritional science needs of food and feed manufacturing clients. Lu Zhao and Wendan Wang, both of whom are fluent in Mandarin and Cantonese and have experience in U.S. and Chinese food laws and regulations, will work with clients to substantiate claims, support food and feed additive petitions, review product labels, and assist with translating and interpreting novel food laws in China and for Chinese food ingredients entering the U.S. market. Burdock Group, burdockgroup.com, Booth 4427
The combined resources of IFIS, a provider of food and health information, and Molecular Connections, an information discovery company, come together in a new database for food regulations and compliance information. Called Escalex, the new database will debut this summer. The database will be updated regularly and every record will be indexed in-depth, employing food commodity and regulation terms. This will enable users to quickly uncover results that are relevant and reliable. A range of filter options and a dynamic display panel will allow users to efficiently drill down into the results lists to access needed information. IFIS, ifis.org, Booth 4753
A clinical research facility for testing metabolic responses to foods and ingredients, Glycemic Index Laboratories is ISO 9001:2008 certified. Confidential, independent clinical nutrition research services available under the acute testing banner include satiety assessment, markers of metabolism analysis, glycemic index determination, and continuous blood glucose monitoring. In the area of claims support, assessment services include weight loss, cardiovascular disease risk factors, multi-center trials, and meta-analyses. Services available in the long-term trials category include risk factor modification, functional foods, and novel fibers. Glycemic Index Laboratories, gilabs.com, Booth 3819
Interactive calculators from AIB International allow commercial bakers to evaluate the ability of baking processes to destroy Salmonella in product categories including muffins, bread, hamburger buns, and—most recently—crisp cookies. The calculators work by using oven time and temperature parameters to automatically determine the total process lethality for Salmonella. If the desired log reduction is achieved for a baking process and the pathogen of concern, a report that is generated may be used as guidance and supporting documentation for the Food Safety and Modernization Act validation and verification process. Lakshmikantha Channaiah will deliver an e-poster presentation titled “Kill-Step Calculator: An Effective Food Safety System for Bakery Products” at IFT16. Also new from AIB are two additions to its lineup of online baking courses available on LearningLab@AIB, the company’s online learning platform. These new self-paced online courses deliver information via convenient, simple modules. The new baking courses are Bread Manufacturing Process and Bread Troubleshooting. AIB International, aibonline.org, Booth 3309
Kansas State University’s Food Science Institute is a provider of education, research, and technical assistance to the food industry. A leading provider of online educational options, Kansas State’s online degree programs include the following: Food Science and Industry Bachelor’s Degree Completion Program, Food Science Non-Degree Undergraduate Certificate, Food Science Master’s Degree, and Food Safety and Defense Graduate Certificate. Kansas State also offers an industry-centered distance-education program focused on the food and agribusiness industries—the Master of Agribusiness degree. Created for working professionals, the program is designed to train managers for peak performance in a rapidly changing industry. Program graduates and current enrollees work in every sector of the food and agribusiness industry around the globe. Kansas State University, foodsci.k-state.edu, mab.ksu.edu, Booth 2044.
Food insecurity is a persistent public health concern; however, few studies have examined the factors related to food insecurity among college students, particularly college freshmen living in dormitories.
Our aim was to examine the prevalence of food insecurity and associations with health outcomes among college freshmen.
A diverse sample of freshmen (n=209) attending a large southwestern university and living in campus residence halls completed online surveys. Anthropometrics were measured by trained staff.
Using mixed logistic regression, associations were examined between food insecurity and health outcomes, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and clustering of students within residence halls.
Food insecurity was prevalent, with 32% reporting inconsistent access to food in the past month and 37% in the past 3 months. Food-insecure freshmen had higher odds of depression (odds ratio=2.97; 95% CI 1.58 to 5.60) compared to food-secure students. Food-insecure freshmen had significantly lower odds of eating breakfast, consuming home-cooked meals, perceiving their off-campus eating habits to be healthy, and receiving food from parents (P<0.05).
Interventions are needed to support students struggling with food insecurity, as it is related to health outcomes.
The workshop will cover in-depth Dynamic Vapor Sorption (DVS) technique and iGC-SEA (Inverse Gas Chromatography – Surface Energy Analyzer), the most-advanced scientific instrument in determining surface energy.
Individuals will benefit from the workshop if your works are in line on studying: drying and dehydration, powder caking, water sorption isotherms, glass transition, temperature, water activity, permeability of packaging stability testing and formulation performance. Speakers from industry and academia will discuss DVS and iGC-SEA, from theory to common applications and present real case studies. In addition, an instrument demonstrations will also be taken place at the end of all presentations.
The FDA Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) was signed into law by President Obama on January 4, 2011. It aims to ensure the U.S. food supply is safe by shifting the focus of federal regulators from responding to contamination to preventing it. For the first time, FDA has a legislative mandate to require comprehensive, prevention-based controls across the food supply. FSMA enables FDA to focus more on preventing food safety problems rather than relying primarily on reacting to problems after they occur. The law also provides FDA with new enforcement authorities designed to achieve higher rates of compliance with prevention- and risk-based food safety standards and to better respond to and contain problems when they do occur. The law also gives FDA important new tools to hold imported foods to the same standards as domestic foods and directs FDA to build an integrated national food safety system in partnership with state and local authorities.
What are Standards?Standards.gov supports the requirements of The National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act (NTTAA), which directs U.S. Federal agencies with respect to their use of private sector standards and conformity assessment practices. According to the NTTAA, standards or technical standards are defined as common and repeated use of rules, conditions, guidelines or characteristics for products or related processes and production methods, and related management systems practices. Listed below are significant standards for the U.S. and global spectrums for IFT members.
U.S. Standards .
Everything Added to Food in the United States: EAFUSCFSAN Guidance DocumentsGenerally Recognized as Safe: GRAS
Global Standards .
Codex Alimentarius Commission The Codex Alimentarius Commission is the international organization created by the United Nations' Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization to develop food standards, guidelines and other texts under the Joint FAO/WHO Food Standards Programme, to protect the health of consumers and ensure fair trade practices in the food trade. IFT has been involved as a nongovernment organization with observer status in Codex since 1992. IFT participates in activities of select Codex committees and task forces, represented by IFT Codex Subject Experts.
Official Codex Meeting Reports
International Organization for Standardization (ISO)ISO develops and publishes international standards relating to, in the food system, topics including food ingredients, food safety and quality, and nanotechnology through a network of national member standards institutes of 162 countries.
Food Chemicals Codex The FCC is a compendium of internationally recognized standards for the authenticity, purity and identity of food ingredients. The compendium features about 1,100 monographs, including food-grade chemicals, processing aids, foods, flavoring agents, vitamins, and functional food ingredients, as well as informational chapters to aid the analyst on topics such as adulteration, analytical methods and more. The FCC plays a key role in safeguarding commerce and public health by providing essential criteria and analytical methods to authenticate and determine the quality of food ingredients. FCC standards are beneficial to all players in the food industry as agreed standards between suppliers and manufacturers aid in distinguishing genuine products from inferior or adulterated ingredients and substances, thereby helping to make the food supply chain safer and assuring consumers of the quality of the food products they eat.
What are Regulations? Regulations are mandated and must be met under specific laws as well as implement general agency objectives. Voluntary standards may be used in regulations under adoption, guidelines, regulatory guides, strong deference, and basis for rulemaking or difference in lieu of developing a mandatory standard. Listed below are significant regulations for the U.S. and global spectrums for IFT members.
Appetizers and small plate menus are on a roll. T.G.I. Friday’s Endless Choice all-you-can-eat option, which offers restaurant patrons an unlimited assortment of appetizers for just $12, has been wildly successful for nearly two years.
Small plate menus and restaurant concepts are among the hot culinary trends for 2016 cited in the National Restaurant Assoc.’s (NRA) 2015 What’s Hot Survey. One-third of consumers say that they are eating more small portions than they did a few years ago, according to Packaged Facts’ 2014 What America Eats report, so positioning small plates as a light meal for those with a sense of culinary adventure is right on target. Perhaps most important, appetizers/small plates are uniquely positioned to permit low-risk/low-cost experimentation, easy customization, culinary conversation, and social interaction.
Garlic bread is America’s favorite appetizer; according to a 2015 Datassential report, 39% of consumers said they love it. Other favorites include french fries, shrimp cocktail, fried cheese sticks, chicken strips/nuggets, potato skins, crab cakes, deviled eggs, crudité, cocktail meatballs, franks, sausages, sliders, and bruschetta.
Two-thirds of appetizers were eaten away from home in 2015; three-quarters were consumed hot, reports Datassential. After soup, salad, and bread, shrimp cocktail and calamari were the appetizers most often eaten away from home, acccording to Datassential.
According to Technomic’s 2015 Starters, Small Plates & Sides Consumer Trend Report, burgers/sandwiches are declining as starters in the Top 500 full-service restaurants and are being repositioned as small plates. In addition, fried appetizer items have declined on the Top 500 limited-service restaurant menus over the past two years; product categories that showed sharp declines include breaded proteins, cheese sticks/fried cheese, breaded vegetables, and fries.
Cheese, guacamole, quesadillas, hummus, other dips, and chicken strips were the appetizers chosen most frequently for at-home consumption. Millennials are the demographic group most likely to have a dinner-time meal of appetizers, according to the 2014 Gallup Study of Cooking Knowledge & Skills report.
At home, 46% of appetizers were made or assembled from scratch, 29% were prepared using prepacked/refrigerated items, and 25% were frozen, according to Datassential. Sales of frozen appetizers/snack rolls topped $1.9 billion in mass channels for the year ended May 17, 2015, according to IRI. The top brand, Totino’s Pizza Rolls, enjoyed a 4.7% sales boost after the introduction of Bold Rolls.
Lettuce wraps, ahi tuna, hummus, meatballs, and flatbreads were the fastest-growing appetizer dishes on restaurant menus in 2015, per Datassential. House-made sausage, charcuterie, vegetarian appetizers, ethnic/street food–inspired starters, amuse-bouche/high-end classic European appetizers, ethnic dips, and poke/ceviche are the top hot appetizer trends for 2016, according to the NRA.
Watch for upgrades to traditional starter fare. More upscale and exotic options with potential include offerings like breaded Cotija cheese sticks, seafood hush puppies, hand-cut fries made from Yukon Gold potatoes, and crab cake sliders.
Tostones, croqueta, empanadas, tacos, and queso are the fastest-growing Latin appetizers and flavors on menus; nachos, quesadilla, guacamole, queso, and pico de gallo appeared most frequently on menus in 2015, per Datassential. Bao, edamame, lettuce wraps, tempura, and sashimi are the fastest-growing Asian appetizers on menus; dumplings, egg rolls, wontons, spring rolls, and ribs appeared most frequently on menus.
Pasta (especially gnocchi), caprese salads, carpaccio, and poutine are other ethnic favorites gaining traction as starters. Skewers, stacking, layering, smashed, and pickled are among the trendy preparation descriptors appearing on restaurant menus.
With micro vegetables among the hot produce trends for 2016, expect them to take a starring role on appetizer menus along with root vegetables and bitter greens, according to the NRA. Seasonal/limited-time offers like grilled fresh pineapple or coconut shrimp in the summer and roasted corn or squash ravioli in the fall are other successful starter trends. One-quarter of American Culinary Federation chefs in the NRA study cited oysters as a hot appetizer trend for 2016.
According to Technomic’s 2015 Flavor Consumer Trend Report, consumers are increasingly likely to order items with a unique sauce; 46% of those under age 35 are willing to spend more on meals featuring a new/unique flavor versus 33% of older adults. Giardiniera sauces posted the strongest growth among appetizer sauces/flavors, followed by harissa, wine reduction, cider, lemon oil, sriracha, and pepper relish in 2015, per Datassential.
This intensive introductory training course covers the essentials of food, dietary supplements, and cosmetics law and regulation. Attendees gain a comprehensive understanding of the various administrative agencies that impact the food industry and learn about pending regulations, food safety, food labeling, enforcement, and related issues. The sessions are presented by leading experts in the field.
You Will Learn:
Key concepts and statutes in food law and regulation, and the relationship between state law and FDA regulations. .
Principles of food labeling requirements and litigation risks as shaped by FDA, the Federal Trade Commission, and class action litigation..
Inspection and enforcement authorities and practical steps toward compliance..
Gluten-free foods are seen more and more these days at restaurants and grocery stores.
That's great for the 1 percent of people who have celiac disease, says CBS News chief medical correspondent Dr. Jon LaPook. However, many people on these diets don't have the condition, and worse, many people who shouldn't eat gluten due to celiac have no idea they have the disease.
They may frequently feel ill after eating, when a gluten-free diet could turn their symptoms around completely. For those with celiac disease, "once you go on the gluten-free diet...you can feel a lot better, just like a flower getting some water in it," says LaPook. "You can blossom."
Celiac disease is an autoimmune reaction in which you're very sensitive to a protein component of wheat called gluten, LaPook explained. This reaction over time can cause inflammation that damages the lining of the small intestine, preventing absorption of necessary nutrients.
The Mayo Clinic adds that children with the condition can experience problems with their growth and development due to the absorption of nutrients.
About 1 out of 100 people have celiac disease -- and most of them don't even know it.
Dr. Peter Green, a renowned expert who is director of the Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University Medical Center, says that 10 years ago only about 3 percent of people with celiac disease knew they had the condition. That number has increased to 17 percent, due to greater awareness. Still, that means over 80 percent of people with celiac disease have no idea they have it, according to Green.
Years ago, doctors only looked for celiac disease in patients who were very sick with severe abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. But more recently, doctors have learned there can be far more subtle signs: Bloating, constipation, fatigue, brain fog (due to lack of iron absorption), infertility, migraines or being short in stature.
The treatment for it is avoiding food with gluten, such as most bread or pasta and many processed foods that contain wheat, rye or barley.
Oats should not contain gluten, but sometimes they are processed in facilities that package other gluten-containing grains, raising risk for cross contamination. The same goes for eating out in a restaurant -- for example, french fries shouldn't contain gluten, but if breaded chicken fingers were fried in the same oil, someone with celiac disease could have a reaction.
"Gluten is in a lot of things, unfortunately," says LaPook. "People who have true celiac disease really need to be careful."
A person experiencing symptoms can go to a doctor and get a blood test to check for celiac disease. If they test positive, the person then would undergo an endoscopy, a tube inserted down the esophagus into the small intestine, where it takes images and a biopsy of the intestinal wall. The walls of the small intestine are lined with villi, finger-like structures responsible for absorbing essential nutrients from foods. A person with celiac will have flattened villi, according to LaPook, and cellular changes associated with celiac disease that the tests can pick up.
Other conditions besides celiac disease may also warrant a gluten-free diet. LaPook says a small percentage of people have what's called "non-celiac gluten sensitivity," a condition that has increasingly gained attention in the medical community. Some of these people may feel better if they take gluten out of their diet. But the discomfort could also be something else like lactose intolerance, a bacterial infection in the intestines or irritable bowel syndrome.
"I would urge people to go to a doctor and try to really figure out what's going on," he says.
Recently, gluten-free diets have become popular among people seeking to lose weight and improve their overall health. Actress and singer Miley Cyrus made headlines more than a year ago when she said she lost weight because she cut out gluten due to an allergy .
But LaPook points out that that gluten-free foods can still contain fats, sugars and certain types of flour, so healthy individuals will not necessarily see pounds come off by cutting out the gluten.
People with significant malnutrition from celiac disease should actually gain weight if they start eating gluten-free, because the villi in the intestines begin to work properly and the body absorbs more nutrients.
An adequate vitamin intake is essential for a good nutritional status, especially in older women, who are more sensitive to nutritional deficiencies. The American, European and Italian Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) derive mainly from studies on adults, and it is not clear whether they also apply to elderly people. Comparing the RDAs with the actual vitamin intake of a group of healthy older women could help to clarify the real needs of elderly people.
Our aim was to compare the American, European, and Italian RDAs with the actual vitamin intake of a group of healthy older women.
This was a cross-sectional study.
The study included 286 healthy women aged older than 65 years.
Main outcome measures.
For each micronutrient, the 50th percentile of the distribution of its intake was considered as the average requirement, and the corresponding calculated RDA for our sample was the average requirement×1.2, as recommended by the US Food and Nutrition Board. This calculated RDA was then compared with the American, European, and Italian RDAs.
Statistical analyses performed.
Student’s t test or the Mann-Whitney test (after checking the normal distribution of the micronutrient) for continuous variables; the χ2 test for categorical variables.
The calculated RDA were 2,230 μg retinol equivalents for vitamin A, 2.8 μg for vitamin B-12, 0.9 mg for thiamin, 1.4 mg for riboflavin, 3.6 mg for pantothenic acid, 1.4 mg for vitamin B-6, 320 μg for folic acid, and 115 mg for vitamin C.
Our findings suggest that the current RDAs are adequate for older women’s intake of riboflavin, vitamin B-6, and folic acid, but should be raised for vitamin B-12 and for vitamin C.
Mondelez International, a manufacturer of chocolate, biscuits, gum, and candy as well as coffee, has announced plans to invest $50 million in its Banbury, United Kingdom, factory to build two new lines that will manufacture Tassimo beverage capsules. Tassimo is Europe’ fastest-growing single-serve system, brewing a wide variety of beverages including Jacobs and Costa coffees and Cadbury hot chocolate.
The decision is part of Mondelez International’s multi-year investment in European manufacturing, under which $1.5 billion has been invested since 2010. The planned investment will create close to 80 jobs and coincides with the 50th anniversary of the Banbury factory, which produces coffee brands such as Kenco, Carte Noire, and Maxwell House. The Tassimo capsules produced in Banbury will be exported to Western European coffee markets in France and Spain ;as well as distributed in the U.K.
“Tassimo is a key driver of growth for our European coffee business, so this $50 million opportunity is a great one for Banbury,” said Phil Hodges, Senior Vice President, Integrated Supply Chain, Mondelez Europe. “Over the past 18 months, we’ve made similar investments in Bournville and Sheffield, underscoring our commitment to U.K. manufacturing. The proposed investment is part of our vision to manufacture our products on state-of-the-art lines that will enable us to meet growing demand while increasing our competitiveness.”
The EFSA has published a scientific report on the risk of transmission of Ebola virus (EBOV) via the food chain. The report notes that several animal species were found to harbour Zaïre Ebola virus (ZEBOV), mainly non-human primates and fruit bats. The EFA assessed the risk for persons in Europe linked to the transmission of ZEBOV via handling and preparation (by consumers or staff handling the food in kitchens immediately prior to consumption), and consumption of bushmeat illegally imported from Africa. The report states: “Due to lack of data and knowledge, which results in very high uncertainty, it is not possible to estimate this risk.” EFSA considered a number of elements and “ based on: (i) the limited number of outbreaks confirmed to date in Africa in spite of the routine consumption of bushmeat in that continent, (ii) the handling of bushmeat in Europe not involving high risk practices such as hunting and butchering, and (iii) the assumed low overall consumption of bushmeat in Europe, it can be assumed that the potential for introduction and transmission of ZEBOV via bushmeat in Europe is currently low.”
The International Union of Food Science and Technology (IUFoST) latest Scientific Information Bulletin (SIB) also provides information on the outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) for the global food science and technology community. The bulletin reviews what is currently known about Ebola, clarifies whether it is indeed foodborne and provides guidance on possible roles in the prevention and control of this outbreak. IUFoST states that “the US Center for Disease Control and Prevention has flatly stated that Ebola is not foodborne. The SIB notes that this viewpoint is correct in the USA because neither bats nor non-human primates are eaten or handled in the USA food supply chain. However, from an international perspective as pointed out by WHO, food handlers and consumers of raw meat from bats or monkeys/apes are at risk of EVD and therefore, Ebola is a foodborne disease in those countries with bush meat traditions. Among other recommendations offered in this SIB: it is stressed that basic food hygiene measures need to be emphasised as historically these have been successful in helping to prevent transmission of other foodborne hazards. “
To improve the nutritional, physical and flavor properties of wheat bran, yeast and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were used for fermenting wheat bran in solid state. Appearance properties, nutritional properties, microstructure, hydration properties and flavor of raw bran and fermented bran were evaluated. After treatments, water extractable arabinoxylans were 3–4 times higher than in raw bran. Total dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber increased after solid state fermentation. Over 20% of phytic acid was degraded. Microstructure changes and protein degradation were observed in fermented brans. Water holding capacity and water retention capacity of fermented brans were improved. Results suggest that solid state fermentation is an effective way to improve the properties of wheat brans.
Sweet potatoes are becoming a research focus in recent years due to its unique nutritional and functional properties. Bioactive carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, carotenoids, anthocyanins, conjugated phenolic acids, and minerals represent versatile nutrients in different parts (tubers, leaves, stems, and stalks) of sweet potato. The unique composition of sweet potato contributes to their various health benefits, such as antioxidative, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antidiabetic, antimicrobial, antiobesity, antiaging effects. Factors affecting the nutritional composition and bio-functions of sweet potato include the varieties, plant parts, extraction time and solvents, postharvest storage, and processing. The assays for bio-function evaluation also contribute to the variations among different studies. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the chemical composition of sweet potato, and their bio-functions studied in vitro and in vivo. Leaves, stems, and stalks of sweet potato remain much underutilized on commercial levels. Sweet potato can be further developed as a sustainable crop for diverse nutritionallyenhanced and value-added food products to promote human health.
Food products are continuously reformulated by manufacturers; however, the monitoring of chemical compositional changes is rare. The objective of this study was perform a comparative evaluation of the nutritional profile of specific Brazilian food groups from 2003 and 2013 using various methods of analysis. Amounts of carbohydrate, lipid, protein, dietary fiber (DF) and energy were evaluated in 259 products distributed in four food groups. Products from each group were evaluated by percentage change, separated by principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). Separation was more clearly observed through the use of HCA than PCA. In the majority of the clusters, a significant difference was observed in at least one component. For instance, a large number of products (53%) in the milk group showed a reduction in the amount of lipids, and products in the cereals and meat groups showed increased amounts of DF (55%) and lipids (40%), respectively. Therefore, the joint techniques applied allowed nutrient content differences to be assessed both in a general manner (percentage change) as well as through the identification of the nutrients in foods that had changed significantly. The results emphasized the need for the periodic monitoring of the nutritional profile of foods.
There is a need to account for the content of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OH-D3) in foods to more accurately estimate dietary vitamin D intake, given its higher biological activity. A high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method was applied to the determination of vitamin D3 and 25OH-D3 in bovine milk obtained during early lactation and over the course of a full milking season. In this seasonal study of bovine milk, vitamin D3 levels ranged from 167 ng L−1 in winter to 615 ng L−1 in summer, whereas the content of 25OH-D3 in bovine milk was <50 ng L−1 and showed little variation. This study will provide manufacturers with data concerning endogenous vitamin D content that will enhance formulation capability related to the production of bovine-milk-based paediatric products.
Chronic and acute dietary exposure to pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) was estimated in the European population via the consumption of plant-derived foods. This resulted in highest estimates of mean chronic dietary exposure of 34.5–48.4 ng/kg body weight (bw) per day in ‘Toddlers’ (LB–UB) and 154–214 ng/kg bw per day in the highly exposed population (LB–UB, also in ‘Toddlers’). Following a rather conservative scenario, the highest estimates of acute mean exposure and 95th percentile exposure were calculated for ‘Toddlers’, with mean exposure up to 311 ng/kg bw per day and 95th percentile exposure up to 821 ng/kg bw per day. Tea and herbal infusions were by far the main average contributors to the total exposure to PAs. Among consumers only, in the adult population, the mean chronic exposure via the consumption of honey ranged between 0.1 and 7.4 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), while for high consumers, it was between 0.4 and 18 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB). In the young population, for the average consumers of honey, estimates were between 0.3 and 27 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), and between 0.7 and 31 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB) among the high consumers. Ad hoc exposure scenarios for food supplements via consumption of pollen-based supplements showed chronic exposure to PAs that ranged between 0.7 and 12 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), while acute exposure was between 2.8 and 44 ng/kg bw per day (minimum LB–maximum UB), in both cases among consumers only. Likewise, the consumption of 150 mL infusion of 2 g of selected plant extracts led to exposures to PAs up to 67,000 ng/kg bw per day (e.g. infusion of Borage).