The Top 10 Breakthroughs in Food Science in the Past 75 Years Guy Crosby July 2015, Volume 69, No.7 . PERSPECTIVE . A . A . A . PDF Email Reprints Print A scientific breakthrough is defined as a significant, sometimes sudden discovery or development that results in the removal of a barrier to progress.
Nitrofurans are synthetic broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. The nitrofurans considered in this opinion are furazolidone, furaltadone, nitrofurantoin, nitrofurazone and nifursol. Nitrofurans are not authorised for use in food-producing animals in the European Union (EU), but furazolidone, nitrofurantoin and nitrofurazone may be used in human medicine. Nitrofurans share a nitrofuran ring which is coupled to a side-chain via an azomethine bond.
The potential allergenicity of Bar, Barnase, and Barstar recombinant proteins expressed in genetically engineered mustard for pollination control in plant breeding was evaluated for regulatory review. To evaluate the potential allergenicity of the Bar, Barnase and Barstar proteins amino acid sequence comparisons were made to those of known and putative allergens, and search for published evidence to the sources of the genes using the AllergenOnline.org database.
Mo-CBP3 is an antifungal protein produced by Moringa oleifera which has been investigated as potential candidate for developing transgenic crops. Before the use of novel proteins, food safety tests must be conducted. This work represents an early food safety assessment of Mo-CBP3, using the two-tiered approach proposed by ILSI.
Introduction and definitions Food biotechnology is the application of biological techniques to food crops, animals and micro-organisms to improve the quality, quantity, safety, ease of processing and production economics of food. It thus includes the traditional food manufacturing processes used for bread, beer, cheese and various fermented milk products.
Today, July 20th, 2015 marks the 46th anniversary of the first manned mission to the moon. For most, it commemorates an amazing achievement that blended innovation, American ingenuity and most importantly science. But for 22 million Americans, that event was one of one of the greatest lies science has ever told. Distrust of science is running rampant in our society.
Legislations and international organizations provide a framework to ensure proper risk assessment of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO). With regard to the deliberate release of GMO as food or feed, applications for Genetically Modified Plants (GMP) typically contain data for the molecular characterisation at the nucleic acid level based on Southern blot and polymerase chain reaction analysis in combination with Sanger sequencing.
CHICAGO— China and Taiwan have enhanced the powers of their Food and Drug Administrations to be more effective in ensuring food safety and guarding against food fraud, according to a July 13 panel discussion at IFT15: Where Science Feeds Innovation hosted by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) in Chicago. “Food fraud is an important food safety issue internationally but is more common in China,” said Chen Zheng of the international division of the Chinese Institute of Food Science and Technology.
CHICAGO— The most successful food producers and manufacturers in the next decade will be the ones who harness the rapid advancements in science and technology to meet the demands of the first fully digital generation as they become adults, according to a July 13 keynote address by futurist Mike Walsh at IFT15: Where Science Feeds Innovation hosted by the Institute of Food Technologists (IFT) in Chicago. “If you really want to understand the future, you have to start with the people who are going to live in it,” said Walsh, author of The Dictionary of Dangerous Ideas and CEO of the consultancy firm Tomorrow. “And the most disruptive group of future food consumers, I believe, are people who are currently celebrating their eighth birthday.
India’s farm sector growth has strengthened in the last decade, but yields of major crops remain low despite a rich endowment of soil and water resources.
Last November, Maui voters through a ballot initiative passed a ban on the cultivation of genetically engineered crops. And now, a federal judge, Susan Mollway, ruled that the ban on genetically modified crops is “invalid and unenforceable” because it is preempted by state and federal law. The county’s ordinance creating the ban exceeded the county’s authority, she said. The county is a major center for research on GM crops due its year-round warm weather.
Recent increases in litigation and regulatory enforcement make this one-day conference essential for food and beverage stakeholders. Professionals who must understand the current and emerging parameters for marketing and advertising in the marketplace face increased scrutiny and litigation with regards to advertising claims and practices. This conference will take an in-depth look at advertising trends such as “natural,” “free-of,” “healthy,” and the corresponding litigation trends; as well as current litigation and insights on how to effectively handle class action lawsuits. Speakers will also address the current state of genetically-modified organism (GMO) labeling and litigation, state law developments, and an update on the Food and Drug Administration’s labeling and advertising regulations.
Printer-friendly version EFSA has produced new guidance which clarifies the data needs for the agronomic and phenotypic characterisation of genetically modified (GM) plants.
The document, which complements existing guidance on data requirements for the risk assessment of GM plants, provides applicants seeking market approval for a GM plant in the European Union with recommendations on how to generate, analyse and interpret agronomic and phenotypic data of the GM plant.
The risk assessment of genetically modified (GM) plants starts with hazard identification, duringwhich any characteristic of the GM plant potentially having adverse effects (hazards) on human andanimal health and the environment is identified. A comparative approach, based on data derived fromthe molecular, compositional and agronomic/phenotypic characterisation of GM plants, is typicallyfollowed internationally to identify differences between the GM plant and its conventionalcounterpart.
A commonly accepted approach for measuring the sustainability of agricultural products is the first step toward treating traded products differentially according to their sustainability. If we were able to measure sustainability, business stakeholders could optimize food production chains, consumers could demand products based on reduced environmental and social impacts, and policy makers could intervene to meet the growing demand for food in a context of environmental conservation, population growth, and globalization. We proposed to measure profit adjusted for the negative externalities of production as a promising single metric for benchmarking products in terms of their relative sustainability. The adjusted profit differences between different products are then assessed by means of the Bennet Total Factor Productivity (TFP) indicator and the Total Price Recovery (TPR) indicator to highlight areas for potential sustainability improvement. To illustrate the usefulness of the indicator-based approach, we assessed the relative sustainability of two Brazilian conventional soybean meal chains, non-genetically modified (non-GM) and genetically modified (GM) chains. Based on the results, we indicated potential areas for sustainability improvement. Sustainability issues included in the assessment were profitability, global warming potential, eutrophication potential, environmental toxicity, farmworker toxicity, consumer toxicity, deforestation, and loss of employment. Results showed that the non-GM soybean meal chain is more sustainable than the GM chain (higher adjusted profit due to higher TFP and favorable prices especially for outputs). However, both chains require joint efforts to address their economic, environmental, and social deficiencies.
The ability of scientific knowledge to contribute to public debate about societal risks depends on how the public assimilates information resulting from the scientific community. Bayesian decision theory assumes that people update a belief by allocating weights to a prior belief and new information to form a posterior belief. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of prior beliefs on assimilation of scientific information and test several hypotheses about the manner in which people process scientific information on genetically modified food and global warming. Results indicated that assimilation of information is dependent on prior beliefs and that the failure to converge a posterior belief to information is a result of several factors including: misinterpreting information, illusionary correlations, selectively scrutinizing information, information-processing problems, knowledge, political affiliation, and cognitive function.
Here’s a question for our Dispatch readers: When is a GMO not a GMO? A proper science answer would go something like this: all agriculture (and really all life) has been genetically modified at some point either by humans or another species (e.g. bacteria or virus) so therefore everything is a GMO.
However, the world is not run through proper science, it’s run through politics and “concerns,” and this makes having a legal definition of GMOs difficult. Here in America, if a gene could have been introduced into a plant in nature, it can still be considered “organic” even if the process of getting that gene into the plant is highly scientific. A number of products that you are eating (and ironically they can be called organic) are created by a method that would horrify you—far more than what may concern you about GMOs.
The past two decades have witnessed the rise of commercial crops that have been genetically modified for an increased suitability in extensive cultivation. Currently, a substantial body of research is being carried out in order to produce Genetically Modified (GM) animals that may similarly yield improvements in animal breeding, genetics and reproduction.
China is now the top export market for U.S. agricultural products and is expected to continue growing. .
China has entered a period of transition that has slowed imports of some commodities and increased imports of others..
Future U.S. agricultural exports to China will be influenced by changes in consumption patterns, farm policies, and enforcement of import standards and regulations..
U.S. agricultural exports to China doubled from 2008 to 2012, growing to more than $25 billion in annual sales. China surpassed Japan, Mexico, and Canada to become the top export market for U.S. farm products. The share of U.S. agricultural exports destined for China rose from about 2-3 percent in the 1990s to 16-18 percent during 2012-14.
As a land-abundant country with highly productive farms, the United States is a natural trading partner for China, a country with limited per-capita supplies of cropland and water resources. A number of land-abundant countries export agricultural products to China, but the United States is the top supplier of China’s growing menu of agricultural imports, with a 24-percent share during 2012-13. The United States is China’s top supplier of imported soybeans, cotton, meat, cereal grains, cattle hides, distillers dried grains, and hay.
All genetically modified (GM) crops intended for use in food and feed must be assessed for their safety to humans and animals. The data and methodology used to conduct these assessments has been developed over many years. International organisations like the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) have been facilitating the harmonisation of food and feed risk assessment methodologies. The Codex Alimentarius Commission, established by FAO and WHO in 1963, has developed harmonised international food standards, guidelines and codes of practice and promoted coordination of all food standards work undertaken by international governmental and nongovernmental organisations.