目录
2015年第1期(发布时间: Apr 10, 2015 发布者:郭文姣)  下载: 2015年第1期.doc       全选  导出
1   2015-04-10 13:07:19.383 医用纳米颗粒:肺癌的局部疗法 (点击量:5)

Nanoparticles are extremely small particles that can be modified for a variety of uses in the medical field. For example, nanoparticles can be engineered to be able to transport medicines specifically to the disease site while not interfering with healthy body parts.

Selective drug transport verified in human tissue for the first time

The Munich scientists have developed nanocarriers that only release the carried drugs in lung tumour areas. The team headed by Silke Meiners, Oliver Eickelberg and Sabine van Rijt from the Comprehensive Pneumology Center (HMGU), working with colleagues from the Chemistry Department (LMU) headed by Thomas Bein, were able to show nanoparticles' selective drug release to human lung tumour tissue for the first time.

Tumour specific proteins were used to release drugs from the nanocarriers

Tumour tissue in the lung contains high concentrations of certain proteases, which are enzymes that break down and cut specific proteins. The scientists took advantage of this by modifying the nanocarriers with a protective layer that only these proteases can break down, a process that then releases the drug. Protease concentrations in the healthy lung tissue are too low to cleave this protective layer and so the medicines stay protected in the nanocarrier.

"Using these nanocarriers we can very selectively release a drug such as a chemotherapeutic agent specifically at the lung tumour," reports research group leader Meiners. "We observed that the drug's effectiveness in the tumour tissue was 10 to 25 times greater compared to when the drugs were used on their own. At the same time, this approach also makes it possible to decrease the total dose of medicines and consequently to reduce undesirable effects."

Further studies will now be directed to examine the safety of the nanocarriers in vivo and verify the clinical efficacy in an advanced lung tumour mouse model.

概要翻译:

纳米是极其微小的粒子,经过修饰修改后可以在医学领域有很多的应用。例如:经过设计的纳米粒子可以运送药品到指定的具体病变部位而不影响身体的健康部位。

选择性的药物输送首次在人体组织得到验证。

慕尼黑科学家研制的纳米载体只在肺部肿瘤区释放药物。

2   2015-04-10 13:39:30.43 肽纳米颗粒可有效运输寡核苷酸类药物进入细胞 (点击量:0)

Therapeutic oligonucleotide analogs represent a new and promising family of drugs that act on nucleic acid targets such as RNA or DNA; however, their effectiveness has been limited due to difficulty crossing the cell membrane. A new delivery approach based on cell-penetrating peptide nanoparticles can efficiently transport charge-neutral oligonucleotide analogs into cells, as reported in Nucleic Acid Therapeutics, a peer-reviewed journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available free on the Nucleic Acid Therapeutics website.

In the article, "Peptide Nanoparticle Delivery of Charge-Neutral Splice-Switching Morpholino Oligonucleotides," Peter Järver and coauthors, Cambridge Biomedical Campus (U.K.), Karolinska University Hospital (Huddinge, Sweden), Stockholm University (Sweden), Alexandria University (Egypt), and University of Oxford (U.K.), note that while delivery systems exist to facilitate cell entry of negatively charged oligonucleotide drugs, these approaches are not effective for charge-neutral oligonucleotide analogs. The authors describe lipid-functionalized peptides that form a complex with charge-neutral morpholino oligonucleotides, enabling them to cross into cells and retain their biological activity.

“The exploitation of phosphorodiamidate morpholinos represents an exciting approach to treating a number of therapeutic targets,” says Executive Editor Graham C. Parker, PhD, The Carman and Ann Adams Department of Pediatrics, Wayne State University School of Medicine, Children's Hospital of Michigan, Detroit, MI. “This paper suggests an intriguing but practical approach to solving the lack of a convenient non-covalent delivery system.”

概要翻译:

治疗性寡核苷酸类似物代表了一种新的有前途的核酸(RNA or DNA)靶向性药物种类。然而,由于很难穿过细胞膜,药物的效用受到限制。一种基于细胞穿透肽纳米颗粒的新的释放方法可以有效地运输的电中性的寡核苷酸类似物进入细胞。

作者说:“电中性的剪接转换反义吗啉代寡核苷酸释放肽纳米颗粒”,并强调出释放系统的存在是为了促使带负电荷的寡核苷酸药物进入细胞,这些方法对电中性的寡核苷酸类似物并不是有效的。

作者描述了脂质修饰的肽形成复合物的电荷中性的吗啉代寡核苷酸,使他们能够进入细胞并保持其生物活性。

3   2015-04-10 15:10:23.997 表面修饰的金纳米颗粒的吸收效率与在体外人树突状细胞的功能改变和细胞因子分泌的影响没有相关性 (点击量:113)

Uptake efficiency of surface modified gold nanoparticles does not correlate with functional changes and cytokine secretion in human dendritic cells in vitro

Engineering nanoparticles (NPs) for immune modulation require a thorough understanding of their interaction(s) with cells. Gold NPs (AuNPs) were coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) or a mixture of both with either positive or negative surface charge to investigate uptake and cell response in monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to confirm the presence of Au inside MDDCs. Cell viability, (pro-)inflammatory responses, MDDC phenotype, activation markers, antigen uptake and processing were analyzed. Cell death was only observed for PVA-NH2 AuNPs at the highest concentration. MDDCs internalize AuNPs, however, surface modification influenced uptake. Though limited uptake was observed for PEG-COOH AuNPs, a significant tumor necrosis factor-alpha release was induced. In contrast, (PEG?+?PVA)-NH2 and PVA-NH2 AuNPs were internalized to a higher extent and caused interleukin-1beta secretion. None of the AuNPs caused changes in MDDC phenotype, activation or immunological properties.

概要翻译:

用聚乙二醇(PEG)、聚乙烯醇(PVA)修饰的金纳米粒子(AuNPs)或它们的带正或者负表面电荷的混合物,用来探讨单核细胞来源的树突状细胞(MDDCs)的吸收和反应。电感耦合等离子体发射光谱法和透射电子显微镜被用来测定Au在该细胞内的聚集。对该细胞的细胞活力、炎症反应、活化标志物、抗原吸收和加工进行了分析。结果表明,金纳米颗粒没有引起树突状细胞(MDDCs)的表型变化、激活或免疫特性改变。

4   2015-04-10 13:24:36.817 二氧化钛纳米结构在生物学中的应用:回顾 (点击量:0)

Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanotubes have potential applications in the biomedical field. This is due to their promising properties such as biocompatibility and high corrosion resistance. These innovative morphologies can be finely tuned at the nanoscale using the selective electrochemical anodization method, providing a high surface area and surface roughness. Reported in Nanotechnology, selected morphologies that have a variety of potential biomedical applications are reviewed.

概要翻译:

二氧化钛(TiO2)纳米管由于具有某些好的性能,因此在生物医学领域具有潜在的应用价值。比如,二氧化钛纳米管的生物相容性和强耐腐蚀性。使用选择性电化学阳极氧化方法,并且提供大表面积和高粗糙度,二氧化钛纳米管具备的这些新颖性的形态结构可以在纳米级别得到细致调整。本文选择了那些具有大量潜在生物医学应用价值的形态进行回顾。

5   2015-04-10 15:05:37.55 天然纳米复合材料的骨组织工程和再生医学综述 (点击量:2)

Natural-Based Nanocomposites for Bone Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine: A Review

Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine has been providing exciting technologies for the development of functional substitutes aimed to repair and regenerate damaged tissues and organs. Inspired by the hierarchical nature of bone, nanostructured biomaterials are gaining a singular attention for tissue engineering, owing their ability to promote cell adhesion and proliferation, and hence new bone growth, compared with conventional microsized materials. Of particular interest are nanocomposites involving biopolymeric matrices and bioactive nanosized fillers. Biodegradability, high mechanical strength, and osteointegration and formation of ligamentous tissue are properties required for such materials. Biopolymers are advantageous due to their similarities with extracellular matrices, specific degradation rates, and good biological performance. By its turn, calcium phosphates possess favorable osteoconductivity, resorbability, and biocompatibility. Herein, an overview on the available natural polymer/calcium phosphate nanocomposite materials, their design, and properties is presented. Scaffolds, hydrogels, and fibers as biomimetic strategies for tissue engineering, and processing methodologies are described. The specific biological properties of the nanocomposites, as well as their interaction with cells, including the use of bioactive molecules, are highlighted. Nanocomposites in vivo studies using animal models are also reviewed and discussed.

概要翻译:

组织工程和再生医学已发展为功能替代物修复和再生受损的组织和器官的热点技术。受骨组织结构的启发,纳米生物材料由于具有促进细胞粘合、细胞增殖、新骨生长,而被用作骨组织工程和修复。这些材料具备可生物降解、机械强度高、良好的骨愈合和韧带组织的形成能力。该文章综述了天然高分子/磷酸钙纳米复合材料、其设计原理和性能。

6   2015-04-10 13:17:45.94 100万美元基金用来成立首个纳米肿瘤研究中心 (点击量:2)

A new $10 million gift from Ronald and JoAnne Willens to Northwestern University’s International Institute for Nanotechnology (IIN) will establish an interdisciplinary research center that will use advances in nanotechnology to develop new cancer treatments. It will be one of the first centers of its kind in the country.

概要翻译:

Ronald and JoAnne Willens向美国西北大学国际纳米技术研究中心捐出100万美金,将用于建立一个跨领域的研究中心致力于充分利用纳米技术研发出癌症的新疗法。这研究中心将会成为国内首创。