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  • 摘要:

    美国农业部动物护理检查员对所有根据《动物福利法》获得许可/注册的实体进行例行的、未经宣布的检查。检查员进行三种类型的检查:1)许可前检查,确保申请人在获得许可/注册前达到联邦标准;2)对所有实体进行例行的、未经宣布的合规检查,以确保它们遵守联邦标准和法规;3)根据公众对非法活动的投诉或指控进行集中检查。在例行检查期间,美国农业部审查了房屋、记录、畜牧实践、兽医护理计划和动物处理程序,以确保动物得到人道的照顾。检查的频率基于几个因素——包括实体的合规历史。美国农业部每年至少检查一次使用受监管动物的研究机构。

    所属服务: 外来生物入侵 | 点击量:0
  • 摘要:

    本报告是基于2018年12月10日从欧洲监测系统(TESSy)检索的2017年数据。2017年,30个欧盟欧洲经济区国家报告了基于病例的瘟疫数据(列支敦士登没有报告)。2017年,欧盟欧洲经济区国家没有报道过任何鼠疫病例。几十年来,欧洲一直没有发生过土著瘟疫。
    由鼠疫耶尔森氏菌引起的鼠疫在中亚和东亚、非洲和北美的野生啮齿动物中具有地方性,并且在世界各地的许多自然疫源地中仍然十分流行。最近爆发的疫情表明,瘟疫可能会在长期未受影响的地区再次发生。虽然城市鼠疫已在世界大部分地区得到控制,但该疾病仍然是许多国家农村地区的公共卫生问题。在美国,2017年报告了5例病例。而马达加斯加占据了世界范围内的大多数鼠疫病例,在2010-2015年间每年报告了250至680例病例。 2017年8月1日至11月26日,马达加斯加的114个地区中有57个地区报告了2 417例鼠疫病例,其中209例死亡(病死率:9%)。另外马达加斯加中部的Analamanga地区受到的影响最严重,占所有记录病例的68%。 77%的报告病例被归类为肺鼠疫,15%为淋巴腺鼠疫,1例为败血症鼠疫,207例在报告时尚未归类。没有与此次疫情有关的国际性传播。但是仍然可能再次出现这种疾病,特别是在贫困的城市环境中,这依然是一个严峻的问题。这进一步强调了在规划具有动物宿主的疾病的预防和控制措施时需要考虑环境因素。

    所属服务: 动植物疫病 | 点击量:0
  • 摘要:

      An overview of the key activities, events and results in 2018, together with commentary on BP’s performance and our priorities as we move forward.

    所属服务: 油气开发与利用专项服务 | 点击量:0
  • 摘要:

      The Outlook considers a number of di?erent scenarios. These scenarios are not predictions of what is likely to happen or what BP would like to happen. Rather, they explore the possible implications of di?erent judgements and assumptions by considering a series of “what if” experiments. The scenarios consider only a tiny sub-set of the uncertainty surrounding energy markets out to 2040; they do not provide a comprehensive description of all possible future outcomes.

      For ease of explanation, much of the Outlook is described with reference to the ‘Evolving transition’ scenario. But that does not imply that the probability of this scenario is higher than the others. Indeed, the multitude of uncertainties means the probability of any one of these scenarios materializing exactly as described is negligible.

      The Energy Outlook is produced to aid BP’s analysis and decisionmaking, and is published as a contribution to the wider debate. But the Outlook is only one source among many when considering the future of global energy markets. BP considers the scenarios in the Outlook, together with a range of other analysis and information, when forming its long-term strategy.

    所属服务: 油气开发与利用专项服务 | 点击量:1
  • 摘要:

      This report contains data and analyses from Shell’s new Sky Scenario. Unlike Shell’s previously published Mountains and Oceans exploratory scenarios, the Sky Scenario is based on the assumption that society reaches the Paris Agreement’s goal of holding the rise in global average temperatures this century to well below two degrees Celsius (2°C) above pre-industrial levels. Unlike Shell’s Mountains and Oceans scenarios which unfolded in an open-ended way based upon plausible assumptions and quantifcations, the Sky Scenario was specifcally designed to reach the Paris Agreement’s goal in a technically possible manner. These scenarios are a part of an ongoing process used in Shell for over 40 years to challenge executives’ perspectives on the future business environment. They are designed to stretch management to consider even events that may only be remotely possible. Scenarios, therefore, are not intended to be predictions of likely future events or
    outcomes and investors should not rely on them when making an investment decision with regard to Royal Dutch Shell plc securities.
      Additionally, it is important to note that Shell’s existing portfolio has been decades in development. While we believe our portfolio is resilient under a wide range of outlooks, including the IEA’s 450 scenario (World Energy Outlook 2016), it includes assets across a spectrum of energy intensities including some with above-average intensity. While we seek to enhance our operations’ average energy intensity through both the development of new projects and divestments, we have no immediate plans to move to a net-zero emissions portfolio over our investment horizon of 10-20 years. Although we have no immediate plans to move to a net-zero emissions portfolio, in November of 2017, we announced our ambition to reduce our Net Carbon Footprint in accordance with society’s implementation of the Paris Agreement’s goal of holding global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre industrial levels. Accordingly, assuming society aligns itself with the Paris Agreement’s goals, we aim to reduce our Net Carbon Footprint, which includes not only our direct and indirect carbon emissions, associated with producing the energy products which we sell, but also our customers’ emissions from their use of the energy products that we sell, by around 20% in 2035 and by around 50% in 2050.

    所属服务: 油气开发与利用专项服务 | 点击量:0
  • 摘要:

      The Royal Dutch Shell plc Annual Report and Form 20-F (this Report) serves as the Annual Report and Accounts in accordance with UK requirements and as the Annual Report on Form 20-F as filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for the year ended December 31, 2018, for Royal Dutch Shell plc (the Company) and its subsidiaries (collectively referred to as Shell). This Report presents the Consolidated Financial Statements of Shell (pages 167-214), the Parent Company Financial Statements of Shell (pages 237-246) and the Financial Statements of the Royal Dutch Shell Dividend Access Trust (pages 251-255). Except for these Financial Statements, the numbers presented throughout this Report may not sum precisely to the totals provided and percentages may not precisely reflect the absolute figures, due to rounding. Cross references to Form 20-F

    are set out on pages 02-03 of this Report.

      Financial reporting terms used in this Report are in accordance with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). The Consolidated Financial Statements comprise the financial statements of the Company and its subsidiaries. “Subsidiaries” and “Shell subsidiaries” refer to those entities over which the Company has control, either directly or indirectly. Entities and unincorporated arrangements over which Shell has joint control are generally referred to as “joint ventures” and “joint operations”, respectively. Entities over which Shell has significant influence but neither control nor joint control are referred to as “associates”. “Joint ventures” and “joint operations” are collectively referred to as “joint arrangements”.

      This Report contains certain following forward-looking Non-GAAP measures such as free cash flow, capital investment and divestments. We are unable to provide a reconciliation of these forward-looking Non-GAAP measures to the most comparable GAAP financial measures, because certain information needed to reconcile those Non-GAAP measures to the most comparable GAAP financial measures is dependent on future events some of which are outside the control of the company, such as oil and gas prices, interest rates and exchange rates. Moreover, estimating such GAAP measures with the required precision necessary to provide a meaningful reconciliation is extremely difficult and could not be accomplished without unreasonable effort. Non-GAAP measures in respect of future periods which cannot be reconciled to the most comparable GAAP financial measure are calculated in a manner which is consistent with the accounting policies applied in Royal Dutch Shell plc’s financial statements. All outlooks on financial metrics and/or alternative performance measures exclude the effect of the implementation of IFRS 16 Leases, which will take place effective as of January 1, 2019.

      In addition to the term “Shell”, in this Report “Shell Group”, “we”, “us” and “our” are also used to refer to the Company and its subsidiaries in general or to those who work for them. These terms are also used where no useful purpose is served by identifying the particular entity or entities. The term “Shell interest” is used for convenience to indicate the direct and/or indirect ownership interest held by Shell in an entity or unincorporated joint arrangement. The companies in which Royal Dutch Shell plc directly or indirectly own investments are separate legal entities. Shell subsidiaries’ data include their interests in joint operations.

    所属服务: 油气开发与利用专项服务 | 点击量:1
  • 摘要:

    The data on antimicrobial resistance in zoonotic and indicator bacteria in 2017, submitted by 28 EU Member States (MSs), were jointly analysed by EFSA and ECDC. Resistance in zoonotic Salmonella and Campylobacter from humans, animals and food, and resistance in indicator Escherichia coli as well as meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in animals and food were addressed, and temporal trends assessed. ‘Microbiological’ resistance was assessed using epidemiological cut-off (ECOFF) values; for some countries, qualitative data on human isolates were interpreted in a way which corresponds closely to the ECOFF-de?ned ‘microbiological’ resistance.

    所属服务: 动植物疫病 | 点击量:88
  • 摘要:

    【待处理污泥不断增加 技术水平待提高】

    污泥处理是指对污泥进行稳定化、减量化和无害化处理的过程。污泥处理包括浓缩、脱水、厌氧消化、好氧发酵以及干化等工艺过程。污泥处置是污泥经处理后的产物,回归自然环境或再利用,能够达到长期稳定并对生态环境无不良影响的最终消纳方式。污泥处置包括土地利用、填埋、焚烧以及建材利用等不同的方式,污泥焚烧后的灰渣可填埋,也可进行建材等方面的综合利用。

    目前中国废水排放总量越来越大,其中工业废水排放量逐渐减少,城市生活废水排放量逐年增大。2017年,中国城市生活废水约为590亿吨,则相应保守污泥产量为2950万吨。

    近几年,国家对工业生产提出更高要求,要求各工业企业节约用水量,提高水资源利用率和废水产出量。从国家公布的历年数据来看,我国工业废水排放量逐年下降。工业污泥产量减少使其中的有毒有害物质减少,从而减少二次污染源。虽然我国在工业污泥处理与利用方面虽然已取得了很大的进展,但与发达国家相比还有一定的差距,离可持续发展战略要求距离更大。

    自上世纪末国内第一座污水处理厂污泥消化池落成以来,由于环保和城市用水的需要,污泥消化池的建设数量急剧增多。但是,国内建设的污泥消化处理系统运转的技术水平至今仍然较低。目前,中国在处理城市生活污水污泥方面,主要有四种方式。其中,污泥厌氧消化是目前国际上常用的污泥生物处理方法,同时也是一种应用于大型污水处理厂中较为经济的污泥处理方法。

    技术的限制使污泥处理的成本升高,效率较低。污泥处理的总成本包括建设投资成本和经营成本。综合来看,焚烧和热干化处理污泥总成本最高,每吨处理成本在330-470元之间,相对来说,好氧发酵和填埋的总成本则较低,每吨处理最高成本不到150元。

    【环境治理是必要 资源化发展是趋势】

    2014年2月份以来,雾霾持续影响我国大部分地区,已经笼罩我国约七分之一的国土面积,数亿人口身陷“十面霾伏”之中。雾霾的背后就是我国异常严峻的环境恶化问题,而我们每个人都是环境污染的受害者。为保护赖以生存的环境,政府提出了要在2020年全面建成小康社会的目标,而生态环境是小康社会的重要组成部分。另外,虽然我国经济得到了快速发展,但想要可持续发展,必须克服资源环境的约束,同时也要将地下水污染等困扰民生、损害健康的问题放在首位。

    在政策的监管下,对污泥的处理更加严格,中国对污泥治理行业的需求将不断增加,会为污泥行业提供源源不断的原料。在消费渠道方面,污泥处理费会作为污水处理费中的项目进行征收,收费效率提高。随着污泥处理资金的投入增加,价费政策和激励机制的完善,污泥处理将会成为治理污染的首要切入点。人均生活水平的提高,会使污泥中氮、磷等有机物质含量将上升,会使污泥行业向资源化发展。资源化,是指将废物直接作为原料进行利用或者对废物进行再生利用,使污染治理的效用最大化。

    所属服务: 水体污染治理 | 点击量:1
  • 摘要:

    报告基于2018年2月21日从欧洲监测系统(TESSy)检索的2016年数据。该报告主要提及以下几个主要事实:(1)2016年,欧盟/欧洲经济区报道了534例确诊的布鲁氏菌病病例;(2)欧盟/欧洲经济区的通报率是每10万人有0.10个案例;(3)观察到的最高比例集中在45-64岁的人群(男性为0.17,女性为0.12);(4)2012年-2016年期间,欧盟/欧洲经济区的通报比率趋于平稳;(5)欧盟南部地区成员国(希腊、葡萄牙和意大利)的通报率最高。

    所属服务: 动植物疫病 | 点击量:0
  • 摘要:

    本报告基于2018年4月2日从欧洲检测系统(TESSy)检索的2016年数据。该报告指出(1)2016年,25个国家报道了2821例与旅行相关的登革热病例,其中2418例(85.7%)得到确诊。(2)2016年欧盟/欧洲经济区的通报率是每10万人有0.6例。(3)病例数量是2012年至2016年期间观察到的最高数量。(4)其中病例发生比率最高的是25-44岁的男性和女性。(5)冬季、复活节和暑假期间的病例数增加,反映了欧盟/欧洲经济区人口的旅行模式。(6)一共有20.5%的病例是来自泰国入境的。

    所属服务: 动植物疫病 | 点击量:2