A mathematical model for calculating the distribution of temperature and the dynamics of the phase transfor-mations of water in multilayer systems on permafrost-zone surface is proposed. The model allows one to perform calculations in the annual cycle, taking into account the distribution of temperature on the surface in warm and cold seasons. A system involving four layers, a snow or land cover, a top layer of soil, a layer of thermal-insulation materi-al, and a mineral soil, is analyzed. The calculations by the model allow one to choose the optimal thickness and com-position of the layers which would ensure the stability of structures built on the permafrost-zone surface.;A mathematical model for calculating the distribution of temperature and the dynamics of the phase transfor-mations of water in multilayer systems on permafrost-zone surface is proposed. The model allows one to perform calculations in the annual cycle, taking into account the distribution of temperature on the surface in warm and cold seasons. A system involving four layers, a snow or land cover, a top layer of soil, a layer of thermal-insulation materi-al, and a mineral soil, is analyzed. The calculations by the model allow one to choose the optimal thickness and com-position of the layers which would ensure the stability of structures built on the permafrost-zone surface.;A mathematical model for calculating the distribution of temperature and the dynamics of the phase transfor-mations of water in multilayer systems on permafrost-zone surface is proposed. The model allows one to perform calculations in the annual cycle, taking into account the distribution of temperature on the surface in warm and cold seasons. A system involving four layers, a snow or land cover, a top layer of soil, a layer of thermal-insulation materi-al, and a mineral soil, is analyzed. The calculations by the model allow one to choose the optimal thickness and com-position of the layers which would ensure the stability of structures built on the permafrost-zone surface.

Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.;Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.;Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.

Submerged jets propagating under stable hydrate conditions and flow environment are considered. An integral Lagrangian control volume method is developed for calculating the jet parameters: the trajectory, radius, temperature, density, and volumetric content of jet components. The impact of two extreme schemes of hydrate formation on the jet parameters is identified. The impact of the initial value of the gas flow rate on the jet temperature is investigated.;Submerged jets propagating under stable hydrate conditions and flow environment are considered. An integral Lagrangian control volume method is developed for calculating the jet parameters: the trajectory, radius, temperature, density, and volumetric content of jet components. The impact of two extreme schemes of hydrate formation on the jet parameters is identified. The impact of the initial value of the gas flow rate on the jet temperature is investigated.;Submerged jets propagating under stable hydrate conditions and flow environment are considered. An integral Lagrangian control volume method is developed for calculating the jet parameters: the trajectory, radius, temperature, density, and volumetric content of jet components. The impact of two extreme schemes of hydrate formation on the jet parameters is identified. The impact of the initial value of the gas flow rate on the jet temperature is investigated.

The aim of the review is to assess the value of model experimental studies for the development of classical rotor aerodynamics as well as to describe the most significant recent results stimulated by intense development of wind power.;The aim of the review is to assess the value of model experimental studies for the development of classical rotor aerodynamics as well as to describe the most significant recent results stimulated by intense development of wind power.;The aim of the review is to assess the value of model experimental studies for the development of classical rotor aerodynamics as well as to describe the most significant recent results stimulated by intense development of wind power.

We report velocity measurements in a vertical turbulent convection flow cell that is filled with the eutectic liquid metal alloy gallium–indium–tin by the use of local Lorentz force velocimetry (LLFV) and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. We demonstrate the applicability of LLFV for a thermal convection flow and reproduce a linear dependence of the measured force in the range of micronewtons on the local flow velocity magnitude. Furthermore, the presented experiment is used to explore scaling laws of the global turbulent transport of heat and momentum in this low-Prandtl-number convection flow. Our results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions and recent direct numerical simulations.;We report velocity measurements in a vertical turbulent convection flow cell that is filled with the eutectic liquid metal alloy gallium–indium–tin by the use of local Lorentz force velocimetry (LLFV) and ultrasound Doppler velocimetry. We demonstrate the applicability of LLFV for a thermal convection flow and reproduce a linear dependence of the measured force in the range of micronewtons on the local flow velocity magnitude. Furthermore, the presented experiment is used to explore scaling laws of the global turbulent transport of heat and momentum in this low-Prandtl-number convection flow. Our results are found to be consistent with theoretical predictions and recent direct numerical simulations.

Thermophysics and Aeromechanics
ISSN：0869-8643 volume：25 Issue：1 page：21-30
Minakov, A V
;
Platonov, D V
;
Abramov, A V
;
Maslennikova, A V
;
Dekterev, D A

In the present study, we report on the results of an experimental study of pressure pulsations in the flow duct of a medium-scale hydrodynamic bench with Francis turbine. In various regimes, integral and pulsation characteristics of the turbine were measured. With the help of high-speed filming, the structure of the flow behind the turbine runner was analyzed, and the influence of this structure on the intensity and frequency of pressure pulsations in the flow duct was demonstrated.;In the present study, we report on the results of an experimental study of pressure pulsations in the flow duct of a medium-scale hydrodynamic bench with Francis turbine. In various regimes, integral and pulsation characteristics of the turbine were measured. With the help of high-speed filming, the structure of the flow behind the turbine runner was analyzed, and the influence of this structure on the intensity and frequency of pressure pulsations in the flow duct was demonstrated.;In the present study, we report on the results of an experimental study of pressure pulsations in the flow duct of a medium-scale hydrodynamic bench with Francis turbine. In various regimes, integral and pulsation characteristics of the turbine were measured. With the help of high-speed filming, the structure of the flow behind the turbine runner was analyzed, and the influence of this structure on the intensity and frequency of pressure pulsations in the flow duct was demonstrated.

The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.;The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.;The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.

EXPERIMENTS IN FLUIDS
ISSN：0723-4864 volume：59 Issue：1 page：1-19
Burns, Ross A
;
Cadell, Seth R
;
Woods, Brian G
;
Bardet, Philippe M
;
André, Matthieu A

A molecular tagging velocity (MTV) technique is developed to non-intrusively measure velocity in an integral effect test (IET) facility simulating a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor in accident scenarios. In these scenarios, the velocities are expected to be low, on the order of 1 m/s or less, which forces special requirements on the MTV tracer selection. Nitrous oxide $$({\rm N}_2{\rm O})$$ ( N 2 O ) is identified as a suitable seed gas to generate NO tracers capable of probing the flow over a large range of pressure, temperature, and flow velocity. The performance of $${\rm N}_2{\rm O}$$ N 2 O -MTV is assessed in the laboratory at temperature and pressure ranging from 295 to 781 K and 1 to 3 atm. MTV signal improves with a temperature increase, but decreases with a pressure increase. Velocity precision down to 0.004 m/s is achieved with a probe time of 40 ms at ambient pressure and temperature. Measurement precision is limited by tracer diffusion, and absorption of the tag laser beam by the seed gas. Processing by cross-correlation of single-shot images with high signal-to-noise ratio reference images improves the precision by about 10% compared to traditional single-shot image correlations. The instrument is then deployed to the IET facility. Challenges associated with heat, vibrations, safety, beam delivery, and imaging are addressed in order to successfully operate this sensitive instrument in-situ. Data are presented for an isothermal depressurized conduction cooldown. Velocity profiles from MTV reveal a complex flow transient driven by buoyancy, diffusion, and instability taking place over short $$(<1\, {\rm s})$$ ( < 1 s ) and long ( $$>30$$ > 30 min) time scales at sub-meter per second speed. The precision of the in-situ results is estimated at 0.027, 0.0095, and 0.006 m/s for a probe time of 5, 15, and 35 ms, respectively.

The optical properties (absorptance, transmittance, and reflectance) of a spherical particle are analyzed when its diameter is much larger than the wavelength of monochromatic radiation. To do this, previously obtained solution of the integral equation of monochromatic radiation is used. The agreement of calculations with experimental data ob-tained for leucosapphire is shown.;The optical properties (absorptance, transmittance, and reflectance) of a spherical particle are analyzed when its diameter is much larger than the wavelength of monochromatic radiation. To do this, previously obtained solution of the integral equation of monochromatic radiation is used. The agreement of calculations with experimental data ob-tained for leucosapphire is shown.;The optical properties (absorptance, transmittance, and reflectance) of a spherical particle are analyzed when its diameter is much larger than the wavelength of monochromatic radiation. To do this, previously obtained solution of the integral equation of monochromatic radiation is used. The agreement of calculations with experimental data ob-tained for leucosapphire is shown.

Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.;Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.;Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.