A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.;A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.;A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.

A tailor-made convective heat transfer test facility is constructed to study the single-phase convective heat transfer of deionized water and 30 vol% and 60 vol% aqua–ethylene glycol in a stainless steel tube of 4 mm in inner diameter and 1 m in length. The heat flux is varied between 1 and 4 kW·m?2 and for mass flux ranging from 160 to 475 kg·m?2 s?1. The experiments were predominantly conducted only for laminar flow regime. Finally, the heat transfer coefficient is recorded and compared with the conventional theories. It is observed that the presence of ethylene glycol in water decreases the heat transfer coefficient by more than 50%, due to the decreased Reynolds number and thermal conductivity of the mixture.;A tailor-made convective heat transfer test facility is constructed to study the single-phase convective heat transfer of deionized water and 30 vol% and 60 vol% aqua–ethylene glycol in a stainless steel tube of 4 mm in inner diameter and 1 m in length. The heat flux is varied between 1 and 4 kW·m?2 and for mass flux ranging from 160 to 475 kg·m?2 s?1. The experiments were predominantly conducted only for laminar flow regime. Finally, the heat transfer coefficient is recorded and compared with the conventional theories. It is observed that the presence of ethylene glycol in water decreases the heat transfer coefficient by more than 50%, due to the decreased Reynolds number and thermal conductivity of the mixture.;A tailor-made convective heat transfer test facility is constructed to study the single-phase convective heat transfer of deionized water and 30 vol% and 60 vol% aqua–ethylene glycol in a stainless steel tube of 4 mm in inner diameter and 1 m in length. The heat flux is varied between 1 and 4 kW·m?2 and for mass flux ranging from 160 to 475 kg·m?2 s?1. The experiments were predominantly conducted only for laminar flow regime. Finally, the heat transfer coefficient is recorded and compared with the conventional theories. It is observed that the presence of ethylene glycol in water decreases the heat transfer coefficient by more than 50%, due to the decreased Reynolds number and thermal conductivity of the mixture.

This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.;This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.;This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.

The enthalpy of liquid cesium in the temperature range from 431 to 976 K was measured by a drop method on an isothermal calorimeter. The approximation equation of enthalpy was obtained and the isobaric heat capacity was determined. The estimated errors in the enthalpy and heat capacity data are 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The obtained results are compared with the literature data. The position of the minimum heat capacity of liquid cesium was clarified (733 K). Tables of recommended values of caloric properties in the investigated temperature range were developed.;The enthalpy of liquid cesium in the temperature range from 431 to 976 K was measured by a drop method on an isothermal calorimeter. The approximation equation of enthalpy was obtained and the isobaric heat capacity was determined. The estimated errors in the enthalpy and heat capacity data are 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The obtained results are compared with the literature data. The position of the minimum heat capacity of liquid cesium was clarified (733 K). Tables of recommended values of caloric properties in the investigated temperature range were developed.;The enthalpy of liquid cesium in the temperature range from 431 to 976 K was measured by a drop method on an isothermal calorimeter. The approximation equation of enthalpy was obtained and the isobaric heat capacity was determined. The estimated errors in the enthalpy and heat capacity data are 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The obtained results are compared with the literature data. The position of the minimum heat capacity of liquid cesium was clarified (733 K). Tables of recommended values of caloric properties in the investigated temperature range were developed.

Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.;Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.;Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.

The problem of simulation of heat and mass transfer in the gas phase of film devices in the regime of weak and strong phase interaction has been solved. The Deissler three-layer model of turbulent boundary layer was used. Expressions have been derived for calculating the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Examples of calculations for various conditions of phase interaction and comparison with experimental data are shown.;The problem of simulation of heat and mass transfer in the gas phase of film devices in the regime of weak and strong phase interaction has been solved. The Deissler three-layer model of turbulent boundary layer was used. Expressions have been derived for calculating the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Examples of calculations for various conditions of phase interaction and comparison with experimental data are shown.;The problem of simulation of heat and mass transfer in the gas phase of film devices in the regime of weak and strong phase interaction has been solved. The Deissler three-layer model of turbulent boundary layer was used. Expressions have been derived for calculating the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Examples of calculations for various conditions of phase interaction and comparison with experimental data are shown.

The buffet flow field around supercritical airfoils is dominated by self-sustained shock wave oscillations on the suction side of the wing. Theories assume that this unsteadiness is driven by an acoustic feedback loop of disturbances in the flow field downstream of the shock wave whose upstream propagating part is generated by acoustic waves. Therefore, in this study, first variations in the sound pressure level of the airfoil’s trailing-edge noise during a buffet cycle, which force the shock wave to move upstream and downstream, are detected, and then, the sensitivity of the shock wave oscillation during buffet to external acoustic forcing is analyzed. Time-resolved standard and tomographic particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are applied to investigate the transonic buffet flow field over a supercritical DRA 2303 airfoil. The freestream Mach number is $$M_{\infty } = 0.73$$ M ∞ = 0.73 , the angle of attack is $$\alpha = {3.5}^{\circ }$$ α = 3.5 ° , and the chord-based Reynolds number is $$Re_c = 1.9\times 10^6$$ R e c = 1.9 × 10 6 . The perturbed Lamb vector field, which describes the major acoustic source term of trailing-edge noise, is determined from the tomographic PIV data. Subsequently, the buffet flow field is disturbed by an artificially generated acoustic field, the acoustic intensity of which is comparable to the Lamb vector that is determined from the PIV data. The results confirm the hypothesis that buffet is driven by an acoustic feedback loop and show the shock wave oscillation to directly respond to external acoustic forcing. That is, the amplitude modulation frequency of the artificial acoustic perturbation determines the shock oscillation.;The buffet flow field around supercritical airfoils is dominated by self-sustained shock wave oscillations on the suction side of the wing. Theories assume that this unsteadiness is driven by an acoustic feedback loop of disturbances in the flow field downstream of the shock wave whose upstream propagating part is generated by acoustic waves. Therefore, in this study, first variations in the sound pressure level of the airfoil’s trailing-edge noise during a buffet cycle, which force the shock wave to move upstream and downstream, are detected, and then, the sensitivity of the shock wave oscillation during buffet to external acoustic forcing is analyzed. Time-resolved standard and tomographic particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are applied to investigate the transonic buffet flow field over a supercritical DRA 2303 airfoil. The freestream Mach number is M∞=0.73, the angle of attack is α=3.5°, and the chord-based Reynolds number is Rec=1.9×106. The perturbed Lamb vector field, which describes the major acoustic source term of trailing-edge noise, is determined from the tomographic PIV data. Subsequently, the buffet flow field is disturbed by an artificially generated acoustic field, the acoustic intensity of which is comparable to the Lamb vector that is determined from the PIV data. The results confirm the hypothesis that buffet is driven by an acoustic feedback loop and show the shock wave oscillation to directly respond to external acoustic forcing. That is, the amplitude modulation frequency of the artificial acoustic perturbation determines the shock oscillation.

The detailed analysis of sound generation in human phonation is severely limited as the accessibility to the laryngeal flow region is highly restricted. Consequently, the physical basis of the underlying fluid–structure–acoustic interaction that describes the primary mechanism of sound production is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we propose the implementation of a hybrid acoustic PIV procedure to evaluate aeroacoustic sound generation during voice production within a synthetic larynx model. Focusing on the flow field downstream of synthetic, aerodynamically driven vocal folds, we calculated acoustic source terms based on the velocity fields obtained by time-resolved high-speed PIV applied to the mid-coronal plane. The radiation of these sources into the acoustic far field was numerically simulated and the resulting acoustic pressure was finally compared with experimental microphone measurements. We identified the tonal sound to be generated downstream in a small region close to the vocal folds. The simulation of the sound propagation underestimated the tonal components, whereas the broadband sound was well reproduced. Our results demonstrate the feasibility to locate aeroacoustic sound sources inside a synthetic larynx using a hybrid acoustic PIV approach. Although the technique employs a 2D-limited flow field, it accurately reproduces the basic characteristics of the aeroacoustic field in our larynx model. In future studies, not only the aeroacoustic mechanisms of normal phonation will be assessable, but also the sound generation of voice disorders can be investigated more profoundly.;The detailed analysis of sound generation in human phonation is severely limited as the accessibility to the laryngeal flow region is highly restricted. Consequently, the physical basis of the underlying fluid–structure–acoustic interaction that describes the primary mechanism of sound production is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we propose the implementation of a hybrid acoustic PIV procedure to evaluate aeroacoustic sound generation during voice production within a synthetic larynx model. Focusing on the flow field downstream of synthetic, aerodynamically driven vocal folds, we calculated acoustic source terms based on the velocity fields obtained by time-resolved high-speed PIV applied to the mid-coronal plane. The radiation of these sources into the acoustic far field was numerically simulated and the resulting acoustic pressure was finally compared with experimental microphone measurements. We identified the tonal sound to be generated downstream in a small region close to the vocal folds. The simulation of the sound propagation underestimated the tonal components, whereas the broadband sound was well reproduced. Our results demonstrate the feasibility to locate aeroacoustic sound sources inside a synthetic larynx using a hybrid acoustic PIV approach. Although the technique employs a 2D-limited flow field, it accurately reproduces the basic characteristics of the aeroacoustic field in our larynx model. In future studies, not only the aeroacoustic mechanisms of normal phonation will be assessable, but also the sound generation of voice disorders can be investigated more profoundly.

The results of the numerical modeling of a flow with a pseudo-shock in an axisymmetric duct are presented. The duct included a frontal inlet with the initial funnel-shaped compression part and the cylindrical throat part as well as the subsequent expanding diffuser. To create a flow with a pseudo-shock, the duct was throttled with the use of the outlet converging insert. Numerical computations of the axisymmetric flow have been conducted on the basis of the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier?Stokes equations and with the use of the k-ω SST turbulence model. As a result of computations, such parameters of the flow were determined as the location of the beginning of the pseudo-shock, the length of its supersonic part, the velocity profiles in different cross sections of the pseudo-shock, the pressure distribution on the duct wall, the total pressure recovery factor, and others. The behavior of these parameters at the freestream Mach number М = 6 was analyzed versus the diffuser opening angle and different degree of the inlet duct throttling.;The results of the numerical modeling of a flow with a pseudo-shock in an axisymmetric duct are presented. The duct included a frontal inlet with the initial funnel-shaped compression part and the cylindrical throat part as well as the subsequent expanding diffuser. To create a flow with a pseudo-shock, the duct was throttled with the use of the outlet converging insert. Numerical computations of the axisymmetric flow have been conducted on the basis of the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier?Stokes equations and with the use of the k-ω SST turbulence model. As a result of computations, such parameters of the flow were determined as the location of the beginning of the pseudo-shock, the length of its supersonic part, the velocity profiles in different cross sections of the pseudo-shock, the pressure distribution on the duct wall, the total pressure recovery factor, and others. The behavior of these parameters at the freestream Mach number М = 6 was analyzed versus the diffuser opening angle and different degree of the inlet duct throttling.;The results of the numerical modeling of a flow with a pseudo-shock in an axisymmetric duct are presented. The duct included a frontal inlet with the initial funnel-shaped compression part and the cylindrical throat part as well as the subsequent expanding diffuser. To create a flow with a pseudo-shock, the duct was throttled with the use of the outlet converging insert. Numerical computations of the axisymmetric flow have been conducted on the basis of the solution of the Reynolds-averaged Navier?Stokes equations and with the use of the k-ω SST turbulence model. As a result of computations, such parameters of the flow were determined as the location of the beginning of the pseudo-shock, the length of its supersonic part, the velocity profiles in different cross sections of the pseudo-shock, the pressure distribution on the duct wall, the total pressure recovery factor, and others. The behavior of these parameters at the freestream Mach number М = 6 was analyzed versus the diffuser opening angle and different degree of the inlet duct throttling.

The optical properties (absorptance, transmittance, and reflectance) of a spherical particle are analyzed when its diameter is much larger than the wavelength of monochromatic radiation. To do this, previously obtained solution of the integral equation of monochromatic radiation is used. The agreement of calculations with experimental data ob-tained for leucosapphire is shown.;The optical properties (absorptance, transmittance, and reflectance) of a spherical particle are analyzed when its diameter is much larger than the wavelength of monochromatic radiation. To do this, previously obtained solution of the integral equation of monochromatic radiation is used. The agreement of calculations with experimental data ob-tained for leucosapphire is shown.;The optical properties (absorptance, transmittance, and reflectance) of a spherical particle are analyzed when its diameter is much larger than the wavelength of monochromatic radiation. To do this, previously obtained solution of the integral equation of monochromatic radiation is used. The agreement of calculations with experimental data ob-tained for leucosapphire is shown.