Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.;Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.;Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.

Submerged jets propagating under stable hydrate conditions and flow environment are considered. An integral Lagrangian control volume method is developed for calculating the jet parameters: the trajectory, radius, temperature, density, and volumetric content of jet components. The impact of two extreme schemes of hydrate formation on the jet parameters is identified. The impact of the initial value of the gas flow rate on the jet temperature is investigated.;Submerged jets propagating under stable hydrate conditions and flow environment are considered. An integral Lagrangian control volume method is developed for calculating the jet parameters: the trajectory, radius, temperature, density, and volumetric content of jet components. The impact of two extreme schemes of hydrate formation on the jet parameters is identified. The impact of the initial value of the gas flow rate on the jet temperature is investigated.;Submerged jets propagating under stable hydrate conditions and flow environment are considered. An integral Lagrangian control volume method is developed for calculating the jet parameters: the trajectory, radius, temperature, density, and volumetric content of jet components. The impact of two extreme schemes of hydrate formation on the jet parameters is identified. The impact of the initial value of the gas flow rate on the jet temperature is investigated.

Thermophysics and Aeromechanics
ISSN：0869-8643 volume：25 Issue：1 page：21-30
Minakov, A V
;
Platonov, D V
;
Abramov, A V
;
Maslennikova, A V
;
Dekterev, D A

In the present study, we report on the results of an experimental study of pressure pulsations in the flow duct of a medium-scale hydrodynamic bench with Francis turbine. In various regimes, integral and pulsation characteristics of the turbine were measured. With the help of high-speed filming, the structure of the flow behind the turbine runner was analyzed, and the influence of this structure on the intensity and frequency of pressure pulsations in the flow duct was demonstrated.;In the present study, we report on the results of an experimental study of pressure pulsations in the flow duct of a medium-scale hydrodynamic bench with Francis turbine. In various regimes, integral and pulsation characteristics of the turbine were measured. With the help of high-speed filming, the structure of the flow behind the turbine runner was analyzed, and the influence of this structure on the intensity and frequency of pressure pulsations in the flow duct was demonstrated.;In the present study, we report on the results of an experimental study of pressure pulsations in the flow duct of a medium-scale hydrodynamic bench with Francis turbine. In various regimes, integral and pulsation characteristics of the turbine were measured. With the help of high-speed filming, the structure of the flow behind the turbine runner was analyzed, and the influence of this structure on the intensity and frequency of pressure pulsations in the flow duct was demonstrated.

Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.;Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.;Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.

The enthalpy of liquid cesium in the temperature range from 431 to 976 K was measured by a drop method on an isothermal calorimeter. The approximation equation of enthalpy was obtained and the isobaric heat capacity was determined. The estimated errors in the enthalpy and heat capacity data are 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The obtained results are compared with the literature data. The position of the minimum heat capacity of liquid cesium was clarified (733 K). Tables of recommended values of caloric properties in the investigated temperature range were developed.;The enthalpy of liquid cesium in the temperature range from 431 to 976 K was measured by a drop method on an isothermal calorimeter. The approximation equation of enthalpy was obtained and the isobaric heat capacity was determined. The estimated errors in the enthalpy and heat capacity data are 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The obtained results are compared with the literature data. The position of the minimum heat capacity of liquid cesium was clarified (733 K). Tables of recommended values of caloric properties in the investigated temperature range were developed.;The enthalpy of liquid cesium in the temperature range from 431 to 976 K was measured by a drop method on an isothermal calorimeter. The approximation equation of enthalpy was obtained and the isobaric heat capacity was determined. The estimated errors in the enthalpy and heat capacity data are 0.5% and 1.5%, respectively. The obtained results are compared with the literature data. The position of the minimum heat capacity of liquid cesium was clarified (733 K). Tables of recommended values of caloric properties in the investigated temperature range were developed.

A technique of particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow structure of a trailing vortex incident upon the tip region of an oscillating wing (plate). The amplitude and velocity of the wing are nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than the wing chord and free stream velocity, respectively. Depending upon the outboard displacement of the incident vortex relative to the wing tip, distinctive patterns of upwash, downwash, and shed vorticity are observed. These patterns are a strong function of the phase of the wing motion during its oscillation cycle. At a given phase, the wing oscillation induces upwash that is reinforced by the upwash of the incident vortex, giving a maximum net upwash. Conversely, when these two origins of upwash counteract, rather than reinforce, one another during the oscillation cycle, the net upwash attains minimum value. Analogous interpretations hold for regions of maximum and minimum net downwash located outboard of the regions of upwash. The magnitude and scale of the vorticity shed from the tip of the wing are directly correlated with the net upwash, which takes different forms related to the outboard displacement of the incident vortex. As the location of the incident vortex is displaced towards the wing tip, both the maximum upwash and the maximum vorticity of the tip vortex initially increase and then decrease. For the limiting case where the incident vortex impinges directly upon the tip of the wing, there is no tip vortex or induced region of upwash. Furthermore, at small values of vortex displacement from the wing tip, the position of the incident vortex varies significantly from its nominal position during the oscillation cycle. All of the foregoing features are interpreted in conjunction with the flow topology in the form of streamlines and critical points, superposed on patterns of vorticity. It is shown that despite the small amplitude of the wing motion, the flow topology is fundamentally different at maximum positive and negative values of the velocity of the wing tip, that is, they are not symmetric.;A technique of particle image velocimetry is employed to characterize the flow structure of a trailing vortex incident upon the tip region of an oscillating wing (plate). The amplitude and velocity of the wing are nearly two orders of magnitude smaller than the wing chord and free stream velocity, respectively. Depending upon the outboard displacement of the incident vortex relative to the wing tip, distinctive patterns of upwash, downwash, and shed vorticity are observed. These patterns are a strong function of the phase of the wing motion during its oscillation cycle. At a given phase, the wing oscillation induces upwash that is reinforced by the upwash of the incident vortex, giving a maximum net upwash. Conversely, when these two origins of upwash counteract, rather than reinforce, one another during the oscillation cycle, the net upwash attains minimum value. Analogous interpretations hold for regions of maximum and minimum net downwash located outboard of the regions of upwash. The magnitude and scale of the vorticity shed from the tip of the wing are directly correlated with the net upwash, which takes different forms related to the outboard displacement of the incident vortex. As the location of the incident vortex is displaced towards the wing tip, both the maximum upwash and the maximum vorticity of the tip vortex initially increase and then decrease. For the limiting case where the incident vortex impinges directly upon the tip of the wing, there is no tip vortex or induced region of upwash. Furthermore, at small values of vortex displacement from the wing tip, the position of the incident vortex varies significantly from its nominal position during the oscillation cycle. All of the foregoing features are interpreted in conjunction with the flow topology in the form of streamlines and critical points, superposed on patterns of vorticity. It is shown that despite the small amplitude of the wing motion, the flow topology is fundamentally different at maximum positive and negative values of the velocity of the wing tip, that is, they are not symmetric.

This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.;This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.;This article reports the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid over a stretching surface with heat transfer. Mathematical analysis is formulated using convective boundary conditions. Computations of dimensionless velocity and temperature fields are presented. The tabulated values show excellent agreement between present and previous limiting analysis. Graphical results show the impact of embedded parameters entering into the problem.

In this paper, we propose a novel optical flow formulation for estimating two-dimensional velocity fields from an image sequence depicting the evolution of a passive scalar transported by a fluid flow. This motion estimator relies on a stochastic representation of the flow allowing to incorporate naturally a notion of uncertainty in the flow measurement. In this context, the Eulerian fluid flow velocity field is decomposed into two components: a large-scale motion field and a small-scale uncertainty component. We define the small-scale component as a random field. Subsequently, the data term of the optical flow formulation is based on a stochastic transport equation, derived from the formalism under location uncertainty proposed in Mémin (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 108(2):119–146, 2014) and Resseguier et al. (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 111(3):149–176, 2017a). In addition, a specific regularization term built from the assumption of constant kinetic energy involves the very same diffusion tensor as the one appearing in the data transport term. Opposite to the classical motion estimators, this enables us to devise an optical flow method dedicated to fluid flows in which the regularization parameter has now a clear physical interpretation and can be easily estimated. Experimental evaluations are presented on both synthetic and real world image sequences. Results and comparisons indicate very good performance of the proposed formulation for turbulent flow motion estimation.;In this paper, we propose a novel optical flow formulation for estimating two-dimensional velocity fields from an image sequence depicting the evolution of a passive scalar transported by a fluid flow. This motion estimator relies on a stochastic representation of the flow allowing to incorporate naturally a notion of uncertainty in the flow measurement. In this context, the Eulerian fluid flow velocity field is decomposed into two components: a large-scale motion field and a small-scale uncertainty component. We define the small-scale component as a random field. Subsequently, the data term of the optical flow formulation is based on a stochastic transport equation, derived from the formalism under location uncertainty proposed in Mémin (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 108(2):119–146, 2014) and Resseguier et al. (Geophys Astrophys Fluid Dyn 111(3):149–176, 2017a). In addition, a specific regularization term built from the assumption of constant kinetic energy involves the very same diffusion tensor as the one appearing in the data transport term. Opposite to the classical motion estimators, this enables us to devise an optical flow method dedicated to fluid flows in which the regularization parameter has now a clear physical interpretation and can be easily estimated. Experimental evaluations are presented on both synthetic and real world image sequences. Results and comparisons indicate very good performance of the proposed formulation for turbulent flow motion estimation.

The detailed analysis of sound generation in human phonation is severely limited as the accessibility to the laryngeal flow region is highly restricted. Consequently, the physical basis of the underlying fluid–structure–acoustic interaction that describes the primary mechanism of sound production is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we propose the implementation of a hybrid acoustic PIV procedure to evaluate aeroacoustic sound generation during voice production within a synthetic larynx model. Focusing on the flow field downstream of synthetic, aerodynamically driven vocal folds, we calculated acoustic source terms based on the velocity fields obtained by time-resolved high-speed PIV applied to the mid-coronal plane. The radiation of these sources into the acoustic far field was numerically simulated and the resulting acoustic pressure was finally compared with experimental microphone measurements. We identified the tonal sound to be generated downstream in a small region close to the vocal folds. The simulation of the sound propagation underestimated the tonal components, whereas the broadband sound was well reproduced. Our results demonstrate the feasibility to locate aeroacoustic sound sources inside a synthetic larynx using a hybrid acoustic PIV approach. Although the technique employs a 2D-limited flow field, it accurately reproduces the basic characteristics of the aeroacoustic field in our larynx model. In future studies, not only the aeroacoustic mechanisms of normal phonation will be assessable, but also the sound generation of voice disorders can be investigated more profoundly.;The detailed analysis of sound generation in human phonation is severely limited as the accessibility to the laryngeal flow region is highly restricted. Consequently, the physical basis of the underlying fluid–structure–acoustic interaction that describes the primary mechanism of sound production is not yet fully understood. Therefore, we propose the implementation of a hybrid acoustic PIV procedure to evaluate aeroacoustic sound generation during voice production within a synthetic larynx model. Focusing on the flow field downstream of synthetic, aerodynamically driven vocal folds, we calculated acoustic source terms based on the velocity fields obtained by time-resolved high-speed PIV applied to the mid-coronal plane. The radiation of these sources into the acoustic far field was numerically simulated and the resulting acoustic pressure was finally compared with experimental microphone measurements. We identified the tonal sound to be generated downstream in a small region close to the vocal folds. The simulation of the sound propagation underestimated the tonal components, whereas the broadband sound was well reproduced. Our results demonstrate the feasibility to locate aeroacoustic sound sources inside a synthetic larynx using a hybrid acoustic PIV approach. Although the technique employs a 2D-limited flow field, it accurately reproduces the basic characteristics of the aeroacoustic field in our larynx model. In future studies, not only the aeroacoustic mechanisms of normal phonation will be assessable, but also the sound generation of voice disorders can be investigated more profoundly.

A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.;A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.;A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.