The paper presents the results of an experimental study of dynamics of vapor bubble growth and departure at pool boiling, obtained with the use of high-speed video recording and IR thermography. The study was carried out at saturated water boiling under the atmospheric pressure in the range of heat fluxes of 30?150 kW/m2. To visualize the process and determine the growth rates of the outer bubble diameter, microlayer region and dry spot area, transpa-rent thin film heater with the thickness of 1 μm deposited on sapphire substrate was used in the experiments, and video recording was performed from the bottom side of the heating surface. To study integral heat transfer as well as local non-stationary thermal characteristics, high-speed infrared thermography with a frequency of up to 1000 FPS was used. High-speed video recording showed that after formation of vapor bubble and microlayer region, dry spot appears in a short time (up to 1 ms) under the vapor bubble. Various stages of contact line boundary propagation were ob-served. It was shown that at the initial stage before the development of small-scale perturbations, the dry spot propaga-tion rate is constant. It was also showed that the bubble departure stage begins after complete evaporation of liquid in the microlayer region.;The paper presents the results of an experimental study of dynamics of vapor bubble growth and departure at pool boiling, obtained with the use of high-speed video recording and IR thermography. The study was carried out at saturated water boiling under the atmospheric pressure in the range of heat fluxes of 30?150 kW/m2. To visualize the process and determine the growth rates of the outer bubble diameter, microlayer region and dry spot area, transpa-rent thin film heater with the thickness of 1 μm deposited on sapphire substrate was used in the experiments, and video recording was performed from the bottom side of the heating surface. To study integral heat transfer as well as local non-stationary thermal characteristics, high-speed infrared thermography with a frequency of up to 1000 FPS was used. High-speed video recording showed that after formation of vapor bubble and microlayer region, dry spot appears in a short time (up to 1 ms) under the vapor bubble. Various stages of contact line boundary propagation were ob-served. It was shown that at the initial stage before the development of small-scale perturbations, the dry spot propaga-tion rate is constant. It was also showed that the bubble departure stage begins after complete evaporation of liquid in the microlayer region.;The paper presents the results of an experimental study of dynamics of vapor bubble growth and departure at pool boiling, obtained with the use of high-speed video recording and IR thermography. The study was carried out at saturated water boiling under the atmospheric pressure in the range of heat fluxes of 30?150 kW/m2. To visualize the process and determine the growth rates of the outer bubble diameter, microlayer region and dry spot area, transpa-rent thin film heater with the thickness of 1 μm deposited on sapphire substrate was used in the experiments, and video recording was performed from the bottom side of the heating surface. To study integral heat transfer as well as local non-stationary thermal characteristics, high-speed infrared thermography with a frequency of up to 1000 FPS was used. High-speed video recording showed that after formation of vapor bubble and microlayer region, dry spot appears in a short time (up to 1 ms) under the vapor bubble. Various stages of contact line boundary propagation were ob-served. It was shown that at the initial stage before the development of small-scale perturbations, the dry spot propaga-tion rate is constant. It was also showed that the bubble departure stage begins after complete evaporation of liquid in the microlayer region.

EXPERIMENTS IN FLUIDS
ISSN：0723-4864 volume：59 Issue：1 page：1-19
Burns, Ross A
;
Cadell, Seth R
;
Woods, Brian G
;
Bardet, Philippe M
;
André, Matthieu A

A molecular tagging velocity (MTV) technique is developed to non-intrusively measure velocity in an integral effect test (IET) facility simulating a high-temperature helium-cooled nuclear reactor in accident scenarios. In these scenarios, the velocities are expected to be low, on the order of 1 m/s or less, which forces special requirements on the MTV tracer selection. Nitrous oxide $$({\rm N}_2{\rm O})$$ ( N 2 O ) is identified as a suitable seed gas to generate NO tracers capable of probing the flow over a large range of pressure, temperature, and flow velocity. The performance of $${\rm N}_2{\rm O}$$ N 2 O -MTV is assessed in the laboratory at temperature and pressure ranging from 295 to 781 K and 1 to 3 atm. MTV signal improves with a temperature increase, but decreases with a pressure increase. Velocity precision down to 0.004 m/s is achieved with a probe time of 40 ms at ambient pressure and temperature. Measurement precision is limited by tracer diffusion, and absorption of the tag laser beam by the seed gas. Processing by cross-correlation of single-shot images with high signal-to-noise ratio reference images improves the precision by about 10% compared to traditional single-shot image correlations. The instrument is then deployed to the IET facility. Challenges associated with heat, vibrations, safety, beam delivery, and imaging are addressed in order to successfully operate this sensitive instrument in-situ. Data are presented for an isothermal depressurized conduction cooldown. Velocity profiles from MTV reveal a complex flow transient driven by buoyancy, diffusion, and instability taking place over short $$(<1\, {\rm s})$$ ( < 1 s ) and long ( $$>30$$ > 30 min) time scales at sub-meter per second speed. The precision of the in-situ results is estimated at 0.027, 0.0095, and 0.006 m/s for a probe time of 5, 15, and 35 ms, respectively.

The buffet flow field around supercritical airfoils is dominated by self-sustained shock wave oscillations on the suction side of the wing. Theories assume that this unsteadiness is driven by an acoustic feedback loop of disturbances in the flow field downstream of the shock wave whose upstream propagating part is generated by acoustic waves. Therefore, in this study, first variations in the sound pressure level of the airfoil’s trailing-edge noise during a buffet cycle, which force the shock wave to move upstream and downstream, are detected, and then, the sensitivity of the shock wave oscillation during buffet to external acoustic forcing is analyzed. Time-resolved standard and tomographic particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are applied to investigate the transonic buffet flow field over a supercritical DRA 2303 airfoil. The freestream Mach number is $$M_{\infty } = 0.73$$ M ∞ = 0.73 , the angle of attack is $$\alpha = {3.5}^{\circ }$$ α = 3.5 ° , and the chord-based Reynolds number is $$Re_c = 1.9\times 10^6$$ R e c = 1.9 × 10 6 . The perturbed Lamb vector field, which describes the major acoustic source term of trailing-edge noise, is determined from the tomographic PIV data. Subsequently, the buffet flow field is disturbed by an artificially generated acoustic field, the acoustic intensity of which is comparable to the Lamb vector that is determined from the PIV data. The results confirm the hypothesis that buffet is driven by an acoustic feedback loop and show the shock wave oscillation to directly respond to external acoustic forcing. That is, the amplitude modulation frequency of the artificial acoustic perturbation determines the shock oscillation.;The buffet flow field around supercritical airfoils is dominated by self-sustained shock wave oscillations on the suction side of the wing. Theories assume that this unsteadiness is driven by an acoustic feedback loop of disturbances in the flow field downstream of the shock wave whose upstream propagating part is generated by acoustic waves. Therefore, in this study, first variations in the sound pressure level of the airfoil’s trailing-edge noise during a buffet cycle, which force the shock wave to move upstream and downstream, are detected, and then, the sensitivity of the shock wave oscillation during buffet to external acoustic forcing is analyzed. Time-resolved standard and tomographic particle-image velocimetry (PIV) measurements are applied to investigate the transonic buffet flow field over a supercritical DRA 2303 airfoil. The freestream Mach number is M∞=0.73, the angle of attack is α=3.5°, and the chord-based Reynolds number is Rec=1.9×106. The perturbed Lamb vector field, which describes the major acoustic source term of trailing-edge noise, is determined from the tomographic PIV data. Subsequently, the buffet flow field is disturbed by an artificially generated acoustic field, the acoustic intensity of which is comparable to the Lamb vector that is determined from the PIV data. The results confirm the hypothesis that buffet is driven by an acoustic feedback loop and show the shock wave oscillation to directly respond to external acoustic forcing. That is, the amplitude modulation frequency of the artificial acoustic perturbation determines the shock oscillation.

The problem of simulation of heat and mass transfer in the gas phase of film devices in the regime of weak and strong phase interaction has been solved. The Deissler three-layer model of turbulent boundary layer was used. Expressions have been derived for calculating the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Examples of calculations for various conditions of phase interaction and comparison with experimental data are shown.;The problem of simulation of heat and mass transfer in the gas phase of film devices in the regime of weak and strong phase interaction has been solved. The Deissler three-layer model of turbulent boundary layer was used. Expressions have been derived for calculating the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Examples of calculations for various conditions of phase interaction and comparison with experimental data are shown.;The problem of simulation of heat and mass transfer in the gas phase of film devices in the regime of weak and strong phase interaction has been solved. The Deissler three-layer model of turbulent boundary layer was used. Expressions have been derived for calculating the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. Examples of calculations for various conditions of phase interaction and comparison with experimental data are shown.

A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.;A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.;A method for determining the thermodynamic (true) temperature of opaque materials by the registered spectrum of thermal radiation under the conditions when we do not know emissivity of a free-radiating body is presented. A special function, which is a product of relative emissivity of tungsten by the radiation wavelength, was used as the input data. The accuracy of results is analyzed. It is shown that when using relative emissivity, the proposed algorithm can be used both within the range of applicability of the Wien approximation and the Planck formula.

A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.;A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.;A theoretical analysis of the effect of velocity radial nonuniformity on nonstationary gas-solid adsorption processes in the column apparatuses is presented. The average concentration model, where the radial velocity component in the gas phase is equal to zero (in cases of a constant velocity radial nonuniformity along the column height), is used in the cases of an axial modification of the radial nonuniformity of the axial velocity components in the gas phase. The use of experimental data, for average concentrations in the gas phase at the column end, for a concrete process (physical or chemical adsorption), permits obtaining the gas phase model parameters related with the radial nonuniformity of the velocity. These parameter values allow using the average concentration model for modeling different adsorption processes.

The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.;The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.;The object of this paper is to provide a reliable tool to carry out the parametrical studies of post-stall behaviors in multistage axial compression systems. An adapted version of the 1.5D Euler equations with additional source terms is discretized with a finite volume method and are solved in time by a fourth-order Runge–Kutta scheme. The equations are discretized at mid-span both inside the blade rows and the non-bladed regions. The source terms express the blade-flow interactions and are estimated by calculating the velocity triangles for each blade row. Additional source terms are introduced to represent the effects of inlet disturbances on post-stall behaviors and the physical analysis is therefore proposed to explain the phenomenon.

The control simultaneous action of a jet and near-wall energy sources on the shockwave structure of a superso-nic flow in the axisymmetric and planar ducts is studied for the purpose of creating a transonic region. The regimes with an extended transonic region are obtained.;The control simultaneous action of a jet and near-wall energy sources on the shockwave structure of a superso-nic flow in the axisymmetric and planar ducts is studied for the purpose of creating a transonic region. The regimes with an extended transonic region are obtained.;The control simultaneous action of a jet and near-wall energy sources on the shockwave structure of a superso-nic flow in the axisymmetric and planar ducts is studied for the purpose of creating a transonic region. The regimes with an extended transonic region are obtained.

Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.;Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.;Flow characteristics of a liquid film flowing over a smooth surface and structured surface with the Reynolds number range from 10 to 1121 are studied. The mixture of R21 and R114 refrigerants is used as the test liquid. The 3D transient simulations are taken to capture the liquid film’s dynamic characteristics and spatial distribution. Effects of the inlet dimension, inlet flow rates, surface tension, and surface structuring on the wettability, average velocity, and film thickness are studied systematically. The obtained results show that surface tension is essential for an accurate simulation, while inlet width has no effect on the liquid film parameters in the steady-state flow regime. For low flow rates, wetting area and film thickness both are small, and a suggested range of Reynolds number is chosen to simulate further heat transfer in order to balance the film thickness and dry spots generation. It is shown that a ripple surface structure hinders the liquid film movement, reflected in a lower velocity and a larger film thickness compared to the smooth surface. Lateral movement of a liquid film can also be observed at the structured surface.

Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.;Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.;Based on data obtained in the previous experimental study conducted by the authors, two approaches are proposed for analytical and numerical modeling of a critical two-phase flow in a pipe with a granular layer. An analytical approach is based on a polytrophic model, while a numerical approach was developed using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. A model of isenthalpic flow of vapor–water mixture in a fixed bed of solid particles is considered is this study. The mixture expansion process is considered to be polytropic. Similarly to the known problem of gas dynamics of a granular bed, an analytical relationship for calculation of a critical mass velocity was obtained. The results of the calculation based on the analytical and numerical models were compared with the experimental data and agreement between analytical and numerical data and the experiment was observed.